Fabrication and curing conditions effects on the fatigue behavior of a structural adhesive

Published on Oct 1, 2020in International Journal of Fatigue4.369
· DOI :10.1016/J.IJFATIGUE.2020.105743
Andrea I. M. Foletti1
Estimated H-index: 1
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne),
José Sena Cruz4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Minho),
Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos28
Estimated H-index: 28
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract This paper investigates the effects of degassing, curing and post-curing conditions on the tensile quasi-static and fatigue behavior of a cold-curing structural epoxy adhesive. Quasi-static experiments performed at standardized and high displacement rates similar to those imposed to the material under fatigue loading, in order to derive comparable results from both loadings, and tensile-tensile fatigue tests at a fixed stress ratio, were carried out. Digital image correlation, video extensometer, thermal camera, digital camera and microscope were used to record the evolution of the strain and temperature, and assess the damage evolution during and after loading. The results shown that degassing can improve the material behavior when curing at ambient temperatures, since it assist the removal of several small voids from the bulk adhesive. However, when curing the material at high temperatures, immediately after mixing, the degassing does not offer any advantage, and the material’s long-term performance decreases.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
10 Citations
10 Citations
2 Citations
References45
Newest
#1Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
Abstract Investigations of the fatigue performance of composite materials have accompanied their introduction in several engineering domains since the 1950s. An abundance of publications have emerged dealing with the experimental investigation of the fatigue performance of composites under different loading and environmental conditions, as well as the development of theories for the modeling of the fatigue behavior and/or prediction of the fatigue life of the materials systems under consideratio...
13 CitationsSource
#1Muhan Zhang (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 2
#2Bingyan Jiang (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 13
Last. Zhanyu Zhai (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
To make better use of fiber reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications, a clearer knowledge of its interfacial properties under dynamic and thermal loadings is necessary. In the present study, the interfacial behavior of glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites under different loading temperatures and strain rates were investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that PP molecules move easily to fit tensile deformation at higher temperat...
4 CitationsSource
#1Malo Rosemeier (Fraunhofer Society)H-Index: 6
#2Alexander KrimmerH-Index: 2
Last. Alexandros Antoniou (Fraunhofer Society)H-Index: 7
view all 4 authors...
Tunneling cracks are observed in the adhesive of the trailing-edge bond line of wind-turbine rotor blades subjected to high-cycle fatigue. To identify the root causes of these cracks, their initiat...
8 CitationsSource
#1A. Vahid Movahedi-Rad (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 5
#2Thomas Keller (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 45
Last. Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Angle-ply (±45)2S glass/epoxy composite specimens have been subjected to pure creep and tension-tension constant amplitude fatigue loading interrupted at σmax by creep intervals lasting for 2 or 48 h in order to examine the effects of creep loading on the fatigue response and vice versa. The specimens’ behavior and damage status were continuously monitored during the experiments; strains were measured by a video extensometer, the self-generated temperature on the specimens’ surface was ...
14 CitationsSource
#1A. Vahid Movahedi-Rad (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 5
#2Thomas Keller (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 45
Last. Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The effect of load interruptions on the tension-tension fatigue behavior of angle-ply (±45)2S glass/epoxy composite laminates was investigated. The cyclic loading was interrupted for two hours at regular cycle intervals, corresponding to 20% of the fatigue life under continuous loading at the same maximum cyclic stress level. Fatigue stiffness was partially restored after each loading interruption due to the recovery of the viscoelastic polymeric matrix. This repeated material stiffenin...
10 CitationsSource
#1A. Vahid Movahedi-Rad (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 5
#2Thomas Keller (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 45
Last. Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The fatigue behavior of (±45) 2S angle-ply glass/epoxy composite laminates was investigated. Rectangular specimens were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue loading at different stress levels, with stress ratio 0.1 until failure. A video-extensometer and an infrared thermal camera were employed respectively to measure the evolution of strain and the self-generated temperature during the fatigue experiments. Using a digital camera and microscope, the progression of damage at the diffe...
25 CitationsSource
#1Myrsini Angelidi (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 3
#2Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
Last. Thomas Keller (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 45
view all 3 authors...
The effects of the loading type, i.e. tension or compression, and displacement rate on the Poisson ratio of a non-linear viscoelastic ductile structural adhesive have been investigated using digital image correlation-based strain fields. The results showed that the Poisson ratio should be based on true strains to take geometry changes into account. In tension, the ratio exhibited a slight dependency on the true strain level below the yield point and on the displacement rate. The rate dependency ...
13 CitationsSource
#1Maria Savvilotidou (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 3
#2Thomas Keller (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 45
Last. Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
This paper presents the results of an experimental program designed to study the effects of aging and a wet environment on the fatigue behavior of epoxy resins used in bridge applications. Specimens were manufactured, cured, and treated, before the experiments, under a variety of conditions, in room and in water environments, in order to simulate the aging of adhesives in bridges for a period of up to 100 years. Experimental results indicated that a typical power law S-N equation could describe ...
15 CitationsSource
#1Pankaj Kumar (MNIT: Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur)H-Index: 5
#2Amar Patnaik (MNIT: Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur)H-Index: 35
Last. Sandeep Chaudhary (MNIT: Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur)H-Index: 20
view all 3 authors...
This paper chronicles the use of structural adhesives in civil engineering construction since its inception. The usage of structural adhesives as effective and popular strengthening agents has been discussed. The application of structural adhesives as connecting agents, especially in cases of steel–concrete composites has also been discussed in detail. Various factors influence the bond strength of interfaces, such as the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of structural adhesives and a...
21 CitationsSource
#1Julien Michels (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 15
#2José Sena Cruz (University of Minho)H-Index: 4
Last. Masoud Motavalli (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 43
view all 5 authors...
Abstract This paper presents strength, stiffness, and porosity characteristics of commercially available cold-curing epoxy adhesives for structural engineering applications in the field of externally bonded and/or near-surface mounted composite strip reinforcements. Depending on specific requirements, accelerated curing of the adhesive under high temperatures might be necessary. Experimental investigations aimed at assessing the possible differences in strength and stiffness between samples cure...
31 CitationsSource
Cited By2
Newest
#1Peiyuan Zuo (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 4
#2Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
Fatigue of structural adhesives has been investigated through joints and a little number of works investigate bulk adhesive behaviour itself. Aerospace and automotive engineering focuses more on jo...
2 CitationsSource
#1Filipe RibeiroH-Index: 3
#2José Sena-Cruz (University of Minho)H-Index: 21
Last. Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
Abstract This work investigates the quasi-static, low-cycle and fatigue behavior of hybrid glass/ultra-high modulus carbon (GC) and low modulus/ /high modulus carbon (CC) fiber composites. These pseudo-ductile unidirectional interlayer hybrids are a new type of composites whose potential is not yet fully understood, particularly under cyclic/fatigue loading. Different test methods (digital image correlation, video extensometer and thermal camera) were used to record the evolution of the strain, ...
1 CitationsSource