A re-assessment of elemental proxies for paleoredox analysis

Published on May 5, 2020in Chemical Geology3.362
· DOI :10.1016/J.CHEMGEO.2020.119549
Thomas J. Algeo9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Thomas J. Algeo63
Estimated H-index: 63
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Jiangsi Liu9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UC: University of Cincinnati)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Paleoredox conditions are commonly evaluated based on elemental proxies but, despite their frequency of use, most of these proxies have received little comparative evaluation or assessment of their range of applicability to paleomarine systems. Here, we evaluate 21 elemental proxies, including six proxies based on the C-S-Fe-P system (TOC, S, TOC/S, DOPT, Fe/Al, Corg/P), nine proxies based on trace-metal enrichment factors (CoEF, CrEF, CuEF, MoEF, NiEF, PbEF, UEF, VEF, ZnEF), and six additional proxies from Jones and Manning (1994) (U/Th, Uauth, V/Cr, Ni/Co, Ni/V, (Cu+Mo)/Zn), in 55 Phanerozoic marine formations. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to determine relationships among these 21 proxies in each formation and then sought to identify patterns across the full database. The first principal component (PC1) accounted for 40.1% of total dataset variance on average, with the highest median loadings on trace-metal enrichment factors (NiEF 0.82, MoEF 0.76, all nine >0.50). The next highest median loadings are on C-S-Fe-P proxies (TOC 0.58, DOPT 0.30, Corg/P 0.28), with bimetal proxies yielding uniformly lower loadings (Ni/Co 0.18, V/Cr 0.13). PCA of the factor loadings for the 55 study formations demonstrated associations among the 21 elemental proxies linked to specific sediment host phases: (1) an organic cluster associated with TOC, Mo, V, and Zn, (2) a uranium cluster associated with all U-based proxies, and (3) a sulfide cluster associated with S and Fe as well as the trace metals Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb (i.e., the major and typical minor constituents of diagenetic pyrite). The findings of the present study have important ramifications for use of elemental proxies for paleoredox analysis. First, all of the proxies examined here are influenced by environmental redox conditions to some degree, although the degree of redox influence on any given proxy can vary considerably from one formation to the next. Second, sedimentary enrichment of most proxies depends on the presence of specific mineral and organic host phases, and evaluation of elemental redox proxy data requires an understanding of how elements are partitioned among those phases. Third, no single proxy is a universally reliable redox indicator, although some are more consistently useful than others—notably, TOC and trace-metal EFs. Fourth, because of this inherent variability in proxy response, adoption of redox proxy thresholds established in earlier published studies is discouraged. Instead, we recommend that future redox studies establish redox thresholds on a formation-specific basis through internal cross-calibration of multiple redox proxies.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
66 Citations
687 Citations
623 Citations
References97
Newest
#1Thomas J. Algeo (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 63
#1Thomas J. Algeo (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 9
Last. Chao Li (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 52
view all 2 authors...
Abstract Existing redox classifications and the calibrations of elemental proxies to modern environmental redox scales are in need of re-evaluation. Here, we review environmental redox classifications, commonly used elemental redox proxies, and their intercalibration, and we propose a novel approach to improve the calibration of such proxies, using datasets from the modern Black Sea, Saanich Inlet, and California Margin as examples. Our approach is based on recognition of compound covariation pa...
76 CitationsSource
#1Jiangsi Liu (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 9
#2Thomas J. Algeo (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 63
Last. Thomas J. Algeo (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 9
view all 2 authors...
Abstract Although redox conditions are the dominant control on authigenic enrichment of trace metals in marine sediments, other factors may be important within environments having relatively uniform redox characteristics, such as some anoxic silled basins. Notably, watermass chemistry (specifically, aqueous trace-metal concentrations) and sedimentation rate can also influence the authigenic accumulation of redox-sensitive trace metals such as molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) in the sediment, alth...
18 CitationsSource
#1Yangbo Lu (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 9
#2Chunju Huang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 17
Last. Yang Liu (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Deposition of the organic-rich shales of the Wufeng and lowermost Longmaxi formations (late Katian through Hirnantian) occurred in a relatively stable tectonic setting and commenced at approximately 4.5 Myr prior to the end-Ordovician glacial maximum. These organic-rich shales are important because they provide a continuous sedimentary record of high-frequency eustatic changes associated with ice-sheet expansion and shrinkage. Here, we carried out a high-resolution cyclostratigraphic st...
11 CitationsSource
#1D. Jeffrey Over (State University of New York at Geneseo)H-Index: 6
#2Emily Hauf (State University of New York at Geneseo)H-Index: 1
Last. Thomas J. Algeo (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 63
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Recognition of stratigraphic hiatuses in fine-grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks can be challenging but is feasible using high-resolution biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data within a regional correlation framework. In this case study of the Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale in the Dupont GHS drillcore from the western margin of the Nashville Dome, the Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale comprises several depositional units separated by intraformational hiatuses. These features...
11 CitationsSource
#1Prasad P. Padalkar (National Institute of Oceanography, India)H-Index: 2
#2Parthasarathi Chakraborty (IIT-KGP: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur)H-Index: 22
Last. Keisham S. Singh (National Institute of Oceanography, India)H-Index: 12
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in hosting and reducing HgII in marine/estuarine sediment. This study provides a better understanding on the influence of nature of SOM, in regulating sedimentary mercury (Hg) and elemental mercury (Hg0) distribution, and speciation in the Zuari and Mandovi Estuaries that are representative of monsoon fed tropical estuaries, located in the central west coast of India. Salinity of the overlying water column controlled the physical ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Jun Shen (Yale University)H-Index: 21
#1Jun Shen (China University of Geosciences (Wuhan))H-Index: 23
Last. Jinling Liu (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 20
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Mercury (Hg) enrichment in stratigraphic successions is now widely used as a proxy for volcanic inputs, often for the purpose of documenting a relationship between large igneous province (LIP) magmatism and ecosystem perturbations. Earlier studies of Hg in Ordovician/Silurian boundary (OSB) sections in South China and Laurentia identified transient spikes in Hg/TOC ratios, on the basis of which a link between volcanism and the Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) was claimed. However,...
61 CitationsSource
#1Genming Luo (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 28
#2Huan Yang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 21
Last. Shucheng Xie (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 51
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Lipids can survive long geological intervals within sediments and provide a unique tool that allows the reconstruction of past organismic diversity and environmental conditions. The lipids discussed in this review include all substances produced by organisms that are insoluble in water but extractable by organic solvents. Lipid biomarkers refer to both functionalized biolipids as well as their hydrocarbon derivatives in geological materials that contain diverse information about biotic ...
16 CitationsSource
#1Wei Wei (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 4
#2Thomas J. Algeo (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 63
Last. Lin Chen (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 6
view all 9 authors...
Abstract The extent of marine influence on the Paleogene Bohai Bay Basin in northeastern China, which accumulated mainly continental (e.g., fluvial and lacustrine) facies, remains under debate. Evidence from geochemical, paleontological, and lithological data have documented several marine incursions, but no systematic study has been conducted to investigate their timing and frequency and their significance for understanding the Paleogene tectonic evolution of northeastern China. In order to add...
53 CitationsSource
#1Li Min (China University of Petroleum)H-Index: 1
#1Min Li (China University of Petroleum)H-Index: 1
Last. Shengbao Shi (China University of Petroleum)H-Index: 12
view all 5 authors...
Abstract The Early Cambrian is a key interval in the global development of biological evolution, in which occurred many important environmental events and organic-rich sedimentary layers were deposited, which formed important hydrocarbon source rocks. The Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation is one of the most important marine sedimentary layers in the Yangtze region, South China, and it records abundant important geological information that can be used for the reconstruction of the Lower Cambrian...
14 CitationsSource
#1Wanyi Lu (SU: Syracuse University)H-Index: 4
#2Andy Ridgwell (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 65
Last. Zunli Lu (SU: Syracuse University)H-Index: 23
view all 21 authors...
Rising oceanic and atmospheric oxygen levels through time have been crucial to enhanced habitability of surface Earth environments. Few redox proxies can track secular variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations around threshold levels for metazoan survival in the upper ocean. We present an extensive compilation of iodine-to-calcium ratios (I/Ca) in marine carbonates. Our record supports a major rise in the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere at ~400 million years (Ma) ago and reveals...
72 CitationsSource
Cited By74
Newest
#1Linsong Liu (CUMT: China University of Mining and Technology)H-Index: 1
#2Hao Zhang (CUMT: China University of Mining and Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Qinfu Liu (CUMT: China University of Mining and Technology)H-Index: 26
view all 7 authors...
Abstract null null In order to investigate the genesis of different types of claystones and facies-related variations in clay mineralogy, a mineralogical and geochemical investigation of the coal-bearing Upper Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation of North China was undertaken in the Wangping and Xiaoyu mines of the SE Datong Basin. This formation contains both kaolinitic and mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) claystones having distinctly different compositions. The former is composed of kaolinite with...
Source
#1Yuxuan Wang (MOE: Chinese Ministry of Education)
#2Shang Xu (China University of Petroleum)
Last. Nan Bai (MOE: Chinese Ministry of Education)
view all 8 authors...
Abstract null null The lacustrine Dameigou organic-rich shale of the northern Qaidam Basin is a particularly promising play for recent unconventional oil and gas exploration in China. Deposition was associated with arid intervals during the otherwise humid Middle Jurassic, but the depositional mechanism and organic matter enrichment processes are poorly understood. This study integrates high-resolution organic and inorganic geochemical proxies with detailed sedimentary observations for samples f...
Source
Abstract null null Geomorphic reconstructions of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet history across Antarctica suggest diachronous and varying retreat patterns with changing climate. However, little is known of how terrestrial environments responded to these climate changes because the continental ice sheet covered most Antarctic coastal oases during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), eliminating terrestrial records. In this study, the environmental history spanning the last 25,400 years was reconstructed...
1 CitationsSource
Abstract null null The organic-rich siliceous rock was developed worldwide during the Late Permian which contains plenty of information about paleoenvironment. This study reveals the vertical variation in organic matter enrichment of the Upper Permian Dalong Formation in the northern Sichuan Basin, which was related to the expansion of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean induced transgression and upwelling in the northern continental margin of the Upper Yangtze. The Dalong Formation was divided into three un...
Source
Abstract null null The Frasnian–Famennian biotic crisis (~372 Ma) was one of the “big five” mass extinction events in the Phanerozoic. This event was associated with dramatic climatic and oceanographic perturbations, including oceanic anoxia, global cooling, sea-level fluctuations, etc. Large-scale volcanic activity is one of several possible triggers that have been suggested as the ultimate cause of this crisis, based on Hg enrichment data from widespread sections. However, there are also secti...
Source
Abstract The formation and preservation conditions of the organic matter (OM) in the Upper Devonian Shetianqiao Formation were investigated to assess the mechanism of the OM enrichment in the shale in the Shaoyang sag. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the shale range from 0.2% to 4.4%. The shale can be divided into three intervals. The terrestrial input during Interval 2, as indicated by the Al2O3 and Ti proxies, was relatively small. The chemical alteration index (CIA) shows that the ...
Source
#1Bowen Zan (China University of Geosciences (Wuhan))
#2Chuanlong Mou (SDUST: Shandong University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Bin Jin (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources)
view all 9 authors...
Abstract null null Enhanced productivity and/or widespread anoxia have been postulated as the dominant controls on organic matter (OM) accumulation in South China during the Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) transition. However, their roles appear to have varied in space and time, and causal mechanisms linking OM accumulation with changing paleoenvironmental conditions remain poorly constrained. Here we report on results of a multi-faceted investigation of the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in a drilled...
Source
#1Alcides N. SialH-Index: 37
#2Jiubin ChenH-Index: 22
Last. Claudio GaucherH-Index: 30
view all 12 authors...
Source
#1A. Plass (Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences)H-Index: 1
#2Andrew W. Dale (Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences)H-Index: 31
Last. Florian Scholz (Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Marine sediments are an important source and sink of bio-essential trace metals to the ocean. However, the different mechanisms leading to trace metal release or burial are not fully understood and the associated fluxes are not well quantified. Here, we present sediment, pore water, sequential extraction and benthic flux data of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd along a latitudinal depth transect across the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone at 12°S. Sediments are depleted in Mn and Co compared to th...
Source
#1Cheng Wang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
#2Qinxian Wang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 8
Last. Duofu Chen (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 27
view all 4 authors...
In geological history, volcanism is closely related to the deposition of many black shales. However, the specific mechanism between volcanism and the deposition of black shales is still unclear. The black shales developed in the Chang 7 Member of the Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin are considered the most important hydrocarbon source rocks in Central China. The shales are deposited by frequent volcanic activities and preserved by extremely rich volcanic ash layers, making them an excellent...
Source