Emerging and legacy brominated flame retardants in the breast milk of first time Irish mothers suggest positive response to restrictions on use of HBCDD and Penta- and Octa-BDE formulations.

Published on Jan 1, 2020in Environmental Research5.715
· DOI :10.1016/J.ENVRES.2019.108805
Nina Wemken4
Estimated H-index: 4
(National University of Ireland, Galway),
Daniel S. Drage15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Birmingham)
+ 7 AuthorsMarie A. Coggins11
Estimated H-index: 11
(National University of Ireland, Galway)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract The brominated flame retardants (BFRs) hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were measured in 16 pools of human milk from Ireland. Concentrations of BDEs-47, -99, −100, −153, and HBCDD were significantly lower (p
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References37
Newest
#1Nina Wemken (National University of Ireland, Galway)H-Index: 4
#2Daniel S. Drage (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 15
Last. Marie A. Coggins (National University of Ireland, Galway)H-Index: 11
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Concentrations of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were measured in indoor air and dust collected from Irish homes, cars, offices, and primary schools during 2016–2017. Median concentrations of DBDPE in air (88 pg/m3) and dust (6500 ng/g) significantly exceed those previously reported internationally, with concentrations highest in offices and schools, suggesting that DBDPE is widely used in Ireland. Median concentrat...
21 CitationsSource
#1Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 33
#2Stuart Harrad (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 74
Abstract Despite extensive application in consumer products and concerns over their adverse health effects, how external exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) contributes to their human body burdens is not yet fully understood. While recent studies focused on inadvertent indoor dust ingestion and diet as potential major pathways of exposure, dermal uptake has been largely overlooked. We provide the first experimentally-based assessment of dermal uptake of BFRs via contact with indoor du...
20 CitationsSource
#1Monica Garcia Lopez (Federal Emergency Relief Administration)H-Index: 1
#2Malcolm Driffield (Federal Emergency Relief Administration)H-Index: 3
Last. Christina Tlustos (Food Safety Authority of Ireland)H-Index: 12
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Abstract The occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and other phenolic brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in Irish foodstuffs has been assessed. A total of 53 food samples including eggs, milk, fish, fat and offal were tested. Eighty-one percent of the samples contained at least one measurable PBDE congener. The most abundant and frequently occurring congeners were BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-209 with the h...
15 CitationsSource
#1Fang Tao (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 7
#2Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 33
Last. Stuart Harrad (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 74
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Abstract The legacy flame retardants (LFRs) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), together with six emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were measured in United Kingdom (UK) human milk collected in 2010 (n = 25) and 2014–15 (n = 10). These data are the first report of the presence of EFRs in UK human milk. The most abundant EFR was β-tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) (average = 2.5 ng/g lw; geometric mean = 1.5 ng/g lw), which is comparable to the concentrati...
47 CitationsSource
#1Fang Tao (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 7
#2Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 33
Last. Stuart Harrad (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 74
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Concentrations of 27 emerging (EFRs) and legacy flame retardants (LFRs) were measured in samples of indoor air (n = 35) and indoor dust (n = 77) from UK homes and offices. All target compounds were detected in indoor air and dust samples. Relatively volatile EFRs (e.g., tetrabromoethylcyclohexane–DBE–DBCH) were more frequently detected in indoor air (detection frequencies >60%), while less volatile EFRs (e.g., tetrabromobisphenolA–bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether (TBBPA–BDBPE) and decabromodiphenyl e...
76 CitationsSource
#1Zhixiong Shi (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 18
#2Lei Zhang (CFS: Center for Food Safety)H-Index: 23
Last. Yongning Wu (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 67
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Abstract On the basis of the fifth Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2011, the dietary exposure of the Chinese population to novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) was assessed. Six NBFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal origin food groups and 29 pooled human milk samples. Based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) analysis, the levels of the total NBFRs ranged from
47 CitationsSource
#1Jean-Philippe Antignac (INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)H-Index: 50
#1J.P. Antignac (INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)H-Index: 12
Last. B. Le BizecH-Index: 8
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The present study compares concentrations and chemical profiles of an extended range of persistent organic pollutants (dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pesticides) in breast milk samples from French (n = 96), Danish (n = 438) and Finnish (n = 22) women. Median exposure levels observed in French women (WHO-TEQ2005 PCDD/F = 6.1 pg/g l.w., WHO-TEQ2005 dl-PCB = 4.3 pg/g l.w., sum of 6 ndl-PCB = 85.2 ng/g l.w., sum of 7 i-PBDE = 1.5 ng/g l.w.) appeared over...
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#1Hermann Fromme (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 53
#2Georg Becher (University of Oslo)H-Index: 62
Last. Wolfgang VölkelH-Index: 45
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Abstract Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of different substances used in numerous products to prevent fire hazards. Some of them are persistent in the environment, accumulate in the food chain and are of toxicological concern, while for others current data are limited. Meanwhile, BFRs have been found in many environmental media, foods, and biota including humans. This review presents recent findings obtained from monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human expo...
147 CitationsSource
#1Jan Ludvig Lyche (NMBU: Norwegian University of Life Sciences)H-Index: 26
#2Carola RosselandH-Index: 1
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Abstract The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for t...
164 CitationsSource
#1Simon Ningsun Zhou (Health Canada)H-Index: 3
#2Angelina BucharH-Index: 1
Last. Jiping ZhuH-Index: 26
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We have examined several emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 2-ethyl-1-hexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1,1,3-trimethyl-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)-indane (OBIND), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in paired human maternal serum (n = 102) and breast milk (n = 105) collected in 2008–2009 in the Sherbrooke region in Canada. Three legacy BFRs were also include...
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Cited By10
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#1Xuezhen Zhao (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 3
#2Zhixiong Shi (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 18
Abstract null null Three kinds of legacy brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including eight polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) isomers, were analyzed in 105 human milk samples collected in 2018 from Beijing, China. The tested BFRs all showed high detection frequencies, and HBCDD was the most abundant BFR, with a median level of 7.64 × 103 pg/g lipid, followed by BDE-153 (389 pg/g lipid), BDE-209 (283 pg/g lipid...
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#1Parvaneh Hajeb (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 2
#2Argelia Castaño (ISCIII: Carlos III Health Institute)H-Index: 30
Last. Octavio P. Luzardo (ULPGC: University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)H-Index: 30
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Abstract null null Human biomonitoring is a powerful approach in assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. Flame retardants (FRs) are of particular concern due to their wide distribution in the environment and adverse health effects. This article reviews studies published in 2009-2020 on the chemical analysis of FRs in a variety of human samples and discusses the characteristics of the analytical methods applied to different FR biomarkers of exposure, including polybrominated diphenyl ethe...
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The European Commission asked EFSA to update its 2011 risk assessment on hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in food. HBCDDs, predominantly mixtures of the stereoisomers α-, β- and γ-HBCDD, were widely used additive flame retardants. Concern has been raised because of the occurrence of HBCDDs in the environment, food and in humans. Main targets for toxicity are neurodevelopment, the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis and the reproductive and immune systems. The CONTAM Panel concluded that the neuro...
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Polystyrene, despite its high flammability, is widely used as a thermal insulation material for buildings, for food packaging, in electrical and automotive industries, etc. A number of modification routes have been explored to improve the fire retardance and boost the thermal stability of commercially important styrene-based polymeric products. The earlier strategies mostly involved the use of halogenated fire retardants. Nowadays, these compounds are considered to be persistent pollutants that ...
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Due to their toxicity and persistence, several families of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention, a multilateral treaty overseen by the United Nations Environment Programme. This treaty mandates that parties who have signed must take administrative and legislative actions to prevent the environmental impacts that POPs pose, both within their jurisdictions and in the global environment. The specific BFRs listed in t...
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Abstract Photodegradation has been demonstrated as one of the important environmental factors affecting the fate of contaminants such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs). However, a number of emerging BFRs, particularly those with high bromine substitution, have rarely been investigated for their photodegradation kinetics. Our study evaluated photodegradation of two highly brominated FRs, 1,3,5-tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-trione (TDBP-TAZTO) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDP...
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#1Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 33
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Abstract Concentrations of 10 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in 16 pools of human milk from Ireland. Only four PFASs were detected (PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOS), with concentrations dominated by PFOA which was detected in all samples at a median of 0.10 ng/mL. Concentrations and the relative abundance of PFASs in Ireland are within the range reported for other countries. Estimated exposures for nursing infants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) ...
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#1Daniel S. Drage (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 15
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Abstract Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and two potential replacements decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were measured in dust samples collected from 14 homes across Birmingham (UK). Concentrations were compared with those from the same city in previous studies to ascertain any temporal changes and to assess the effects of legislative restrictions. The average ∑...
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#1Warren G. Foster (McMaster University)H-Index: 56
The uterine environment in which a foetus develops is critical to infant, child, and adult health. Adverse intra-uterine environments have been linked to increased risk for neurobehavioral disorders and metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Rapid cell division, tissue growth, differentiation, and organization of major organs are all features rendering the developing foetus sensitive to insult from exogenous chemicals. Therefore, interest in measurement of developmental exposure to environmental ...
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