Fault reactivation by gas injection at an underground gas storage off the east coast of Spain

Published on Jan 14, 2020in Solid Earth3.337
· DOI :10.5194/SE-11-63-2020
Antonio Villaseñor33
Estimated H-index: 33
(CSIC: Spanish National Research Council),
Robert B. Herrmann55
Estimated H-index: 55
(SLU: Saint Louis University)
+ 1 AuthorsArantza Ugalde10
Estimated H-index: 10
(CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)
Abstract. During September–October of 2013 an intense swarm of earthquakes occurred off the east coast of Spain associated with the injection of the base gas in an offshore underground gas storage. Two weeks after the end of the injection operations, three moderate-sized earthquakes ( M w 4.0–4.1) occurred near the storage. These events were widely felt by the nearby population, leading to the indefinite shut-down of the facility. Here we investigate the source parameters (focal depth and mechanism) of the largest earthquakes in the sequence in order to identify the faults reactivated by the gas injection, and to help understand the processes that caused the earthquakes. Our waveform modeling results indicate that the largest earthquakes occurred at depths of 6–8 km beneath the sea floor, significantly deeper than the injection depth (~ 1800 m). Although we cannot undoubtedly discriminate the fault plane from the two nodal planes of the mechanisms, most evidence seems to favor a NW-SE striking fault plane. We propose that the gas injection reactivated unmapped faults in the Paleozoic basement, with regional orientation possibly inherited from the opening of the Valencia Trough.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
#2Robert B. HerrmannH-Index: 55
Last. Arantza UgaldeH-Index: 10
view all 4 authors...
The dataset consists of 14 directories, one for each earthquake analyzed, including raw data and results. A README.txt file describes the contents of the directories.
#1P. Bhattacharya (IIT BBS: Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar)H-Index: 4
#2Robert C. Viesca (Tufts University)H-Index: 10
Earthquake swarms attributed to subsurface fluid injection are usually assumed to occur on faults destabilized by increased pore-fluid pressures. However, fluid injection could also activate aseismic slip, which might outpace pore-fluid migration and transmit earthquake-triggering stress changes beyond the fluid-pressurized region. We tested this theoretical prediction against data derived from fluid-injection experiments that activated and measured slow, aseismic slip on preexisting, shallow fa...
Abstract. On 24 September 2013, an Ml 3.6 earthquake struck in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain) near the Mediterranean coast of Castello, roughly 1 week after gas injections conducted in the area to develop underground gas storage had been halted. The event, felt by the nearby population, led to a sequence build-up of felt events which reached a maximum of Ml 4.3 on 2 October. Here, we study the role of static stress transfer as an earthquake-triggering mechanism during the main phase of the sequenc...
#1Imma Palomeras (Rice University)H-Index: 15
#2Antonio Villaseñor (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 33
Last. Mimoun HarnafiH-Index: 17
view all 6 authors...
This research was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation EAR- 0808939. The deployment of the IberArray broadband seismic network is part of the CONSOLIDER-Ingenio 2010 TOPO-IBERIA (CSD2006-00041: Geosciences in Iberia: Integrated studies on Topography and 4-D Evolution) grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Additional funding was provided by the Spanish ministry under grants CGL2010-17280, CGL2006-01171,CGL2009-09727, and CGL2007-63889,and by Generalitat de Catalunya...
#1Oliver HeidbachH-Index: 32
#2Custodio CustodioH-Index: 1
Last. Moritz ZieglerH-Index: 11
view all 13 authors...
The Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe 2016 displays 5011 A-C quality stress data records of the upper 40 km of the Earth’s crust from the WSM database release 2016 (Heidbach et al, 2016, http://doi.org/10.5880/WSM.2016.001). Focal mechanism solutions determined as being potentially unreliable (labelled as Possible Plate Boundary Events in the database) are not displayed. Further detailed information on the WSM quality ranking scheme, guidelines for the various stress indicators,...
#1William L. Yeck (National Earthquake Information Center)H-Index: 16
#2Matthew Weingarten (Stanford University)H-Index: 11
Last. Paul S. Earle (National Earthquake Information Center)H-Index: 33
view all 8 authors...
The Mw 5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma, earthquake on 13 February 2016 and its associated seismicity produced the largest moment release in the central and eastern United States since the 2011 Mw 5.7 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake sequence and is one of the largest earthquakes potentially linked to wastewater injection. This energetic sequence has produced five earthquakes with Mw 4.4 or larger. Almost all of these earthquakes occur in Precambrian basement on a partially unmapped 14 km long fault. Regional...
#1Beatriz Gaite (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 6
#2Arantza Ugalde (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 10
Last. Estefania Blanch (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 14
view all 4 authors...
Abstract On September 2013, increased seismic activity was recorded near the CASTOR offshore underground gas storage (UGS), in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain). According to the reports by the Spanish Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN), more than 550 events occurred during two months, the strongest having a magnitude of M w = 4.2 which took place two weeks after the gas injection stopped. The low magnitude of the events (with only 17 earthquakes having m bLg greater than 3), the lack of nearby stat...
#1Daniel E. McNamara (USGS: United States Geological Survey)H-Index: 29
#2Harley M. Benz (USGS: United States Geological Survey)H-Index: 38
Last. A. Gassner (USGS: United States Geological Survey)H-Index: 1
view all 8 authors...
The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 th...
#1Simone Cesca (University of Potsdam)H-Index: 27
#2Francesco Grigoli (University of Potsdam)H-Index: 17
Last. Torsten Dahm (University of Potsdam)H-Index: 40
view all 8 authors...
A spatially localized seismic sequence originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, close to the Ebro river delta, starting on 2013 September 5, and asting at least until 2013 October. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on 2013 October 1. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE–SW orient...
Abstract The FMNEAR method is based on both the waveform inversion of near‐source seismic records and on a linear finite‐source model. The primary source parameters that are determined are the moment magnitude ( M w ), the double‐couple focal mechanism (strike, dip, and rake), and the distribution of seismic moment along strike, which provides a first‐order estimate of rupture length and directivity. Source depth is also explored. An advantage of the approach is the use of the finite‐source mode...
Cited By5
#1Simone Cesca (University of Potsdam)H-Index: 27
#2Daniel Stich (UGR: University of Granada)H-Index: 23
Last. William L. Ellsworth (Stanford University)H-Index: 71
view all 9 authors...
The 2013 seismic sequence at the Castor injection platform offshore Spain, including three earthquakes of magnitude 4.1, occurred during the initial filling of a planned Underground Gas Storage facility. The Castor sequence is one of the most important cases of induced seismicity in Europe and a rare example of seismicity induced by gas injection into a depleted oil field. Here we use advanced seismological techniques applied to an enhanced waveform dataset, to resolve the geometry of the faults...
view all 3 authors...
Reservoir-triggered seismicity has been observed near dams during construction, impoundment, and cyclic filling in many parts of the earth. In Turkey, the number of dams has increased substantially over the last decade, with Ataturk Dam being the largest dam in Turkey with a total water capacity of 48.7 billion m3. After the construction of the dam, the monitoring network has improved. Considering earthquakes above the long-term completeness magnitude of MC=3.5, the local seismicity rate has sub...
#1Víctor Vilarrasa (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 23
#2Silvia De Simone (University of Rennes)H-Index: 6
Last. Antonio Villaseñor (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
#1Haiqing Wu (UPC: Polytechnic University of Catalonia)H-Index: 5
#2Víctor Vilarrasa (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 23
Last. Francesco Parisio (Freiberg University of Mining and Technology)H-Index: 8
view all 5 authors...
Displaced faults crossing the reservoir could significantly increase the induced earthquake frequency in geo‐energy projects. Understanding and predicting the stress variation in such cases is essential to minimize the risk of induced seismicity. Here, we adopt the inclusion theory to develop an analytical solution for the stress response to pore pressure variations within the reservoir for both permeable and impermeable faults with offset ranging from zero to the reservoir thickness. By analyzi...
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.