Fractographic evaluation of welded joints of PPS/glass fiber thermoplastic composites

Published on Aug 1, 2019in Engineering Failure Analysis2.897
· DOI :10.1016/J.ENGFAILANAL.2019.04.032
Lorena Cristina Miranda Barbosa6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo),
Samia Danuta Brejão de Souza4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UNESP: Sao Paulo State University)
+ 2 AuthorsMirabel Cerqueira Rezende1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Joints obtained by resistance welding of polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) laminates reinforced with bidirectional glass fiber (GF) fabrics were investigated by fractographic analyses. The welded joints were tested under lap shear loading at room temperature. The fracture surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. Electric resistance welding technique uses the matrix flow property, when the thermoplastic is heated above the softening temperature (for amorphous polymers) or above the melting temperature (for semicrystalline polymers), to promote the welding between the laminates. Fractographic aspects of the studied fracture surfaces show that the interfacial adhesion of matrix/heating element was efficient, with the presence of intralaminar and interfacial failures. The intralaminar failure was predominant in laminates with higher values of shear strength (9.6 MPa). On the other hand, interfacial failure was predominant in laminates with lower values of shear strength (1.9 MPa). The mechanical performance measured for the welded joints was attributed to the polymer chains interdiffusion mechanism in the welding region as well as to the good polymer anchoring in the mesh of heating element. The fractographic analyses performed proved to be an adequate tool because provide information to evaluate the quality of welding process of thermoplastic composites.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
36 Citations
21 Citations
2012
3 Authors (M. Kadlec, ..., J. Siegl)
References21
Newest
#1Lorena Cristina Miranda Barbosa (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 6
#2Samia Danuta Brejão de Souza (UNESP: Sao Paulo State University)H-Index: 4
Last. Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 34
view all 5 authors...
Abstract This work shows a fractographic study on fracture surfaces of welded joints by electrical resistance of thermoplastic composites based on polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) reinforced with continuous carbon fiber (CF), evaluated after lap shear loading. The fracture surfaces were generated with the complete breakdown of the specimens under the same conditions used in the mechanical test. The fractographic aspects of fracture surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM ana...
12 CitationsSource
#1Niamh H Nash (UL: University of Limerick)H-Index: 6
#1N.H. Nash (UL: University of Limerick)H-Index: 2
Last. W.F. Stanley (UL: University of Limerick)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Infusion processing methods have become a popular manufacturing alternative to the autoclave procedure to meet the increased demand for high-performance composites with shorter production times and lower cost. These processes are primarily limited to low viscosity, thermosetting matrices that are inherently brittle, and hence are susceptible to impact damage. It has been shown that introducing a thermoplastic modifier to create a “three-phase composite” can improve the ability of the la...
82 CitationsSource
#1Irene Fernandez Villegas (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 12
#2Pablo Vizcaino Rubio (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 1
Abstract One of the major constraints in welding thermoplastic and thermoset composites is thermal degradation of the thermoset resin under the high temperatures required to achieve fusion bonding of the thermoplastic resin. This paper presents a procedure to successfully prevent thermal degradation of the thermoset resin during high-temperature welding of thermoplastic to thermoset composites. The procedure is based on reducing the heating time to fractions of a second during the welding proces...
38 CitationsSource
#1H. Shi (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2I. Fernandez Villegas (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 9
Last. H.E.N. Bersee (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 7
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The strength and failure modes of resistance welded thermoplastic composites were investigated. Special attention was paid to the effect of basic characteristics of the adherends such as fibre–matrix adhesion and fibre orientation. 8HS woven GF/PEI composites were resistance welded. Intralaminar failure was found to be the major failure mechanism for the well welded joints, consisting of either fibre–matrix debonding or laminate tearing. An improved fibre–matrix adhesion was found to re...
36 CitationsSource
#1ME OtheguyH-Index: 1
#2A.G. Gibson (Newcastle University)H-Index: 39
Last. AM Robinson (Newcastle University)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
This article presents an experimental study of fusion-bonded polypropylene (PP) glass composite joints in the context of small craft manufacture. The objective is to investigate the manufacturing of lap joints and T-joints as a structural part of a small boat and study their properties, because a joining technique is a fundamental requirement of any boat construction technology. Results show that PP interlayers improve bond quality for both lap joints and T-joints and that woven precursor materi...
4 CitationsSource
#1Emile S. GreenhalghH-Index: 28
197 CitationsSource
#1J.S.U. Schell (École des Mines de Douai)H-Index: 1
#2Johann Guilleminot (École des Mines de Douai)H-Index: 17
Last. Patricia Krawczak (École des Mines de Douai)H-Index: 29
view all 4 authors...
A fundamental characteristic of composite materials is that the initial choice of fiber and matrix type together with the selected manufacturing process controls the properties of the final part. As the manufacturing process creates simultaneously the composite and the component, its influence on part quality must be considered. From a manufacturing point of view, considering equipment, energy costs and production rate, it is desirable to process the part at the lowest possible pressures and tem...
26 CitationsSource
AbstractThe laser transmission welding (LTW) process is optimised with regard to quality and cost for welded thermoplastic stiffeners on aircraft's fuselage skin. A generic optimisation concept developed in previous author's work is applied. Quality and cost sensitivity analyses were performed to derive material dependent quality function and process dependent cost estimation relationships. Quality function and cost estimation relationships are exploited to derive iteratively the optimal welding...
6 CitationsSource
#1Martine Dubé (McGill University)H-Index: 14
#2Pascal Hubert (McGill University)H-Index: 34
Last. Johanne Denault (National Research Council)H-Index: 26
view all 4 authors...
Abstract An experimental investigation characterising the fatigue failure mechanisms of resistance-welded thermoplastic composites skin/stringer joints is presented. Unidirectional (UD) and quasi-isotropic adherends were welded using stainless steel meshes as heating elements. The specimen geometry consisted of a flange laminate, representing a stringer, welded onto a skin laminate. In order to avoid current leakage to the electrically conductive adherends, a ceramic-coated heating element (TiO2...
14 CitationsSource
#1Giovanni Nino (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 4
#2T.J. AhmedH-Index: 5
Last. Adriaan Beukers (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 24
view all 4 authors...
This paper presents a thermography-based approach for the non-destructive inspection (NDI) of thermoplastic composite welds. Termed HELTHY (Heat Emitting Layer for THermographY), the technique makes use of the heating element that is used in the welding process as the source of heat for thermographic inspection. Two techniques were utilised in observing surface signal variations: direct temperature measurement and lockin. An infrared camera was used to acquire the surface temperatures and lockin...
21 CitationsSource
Cited By13
Newest
#1Pu Zhao (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)
#2Lin Tian (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)
view all 6 authors...
Abstract There is an increasing need for joining technologies of thermoplastics , in which hot gas welding is one of the most promising methods. In this paper, an innovative hot gas implant welding technology was used for the bonding of polypropylene (PP). The hot gas implant welding of PP plates was conducted under different heating time ( th) in this research, while porous copper was selected as heat transfer implant. The evolution of temperature with th in the welding joint was recorded using...
Source
#1Xuhai Xiong (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)H-Index: 16
#2Daosehng Wang (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)
Last. Shude Ji (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)H-Index: 3
view all 6 authors...
An approach of adding graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets to enhance the joints for resistance welding glass fabric reinforced polyetherimide (GF/PEI) laminates was proposed in this study. The GO nanosh...
Source
#1Thaís Peres Zanetine Marques (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)
#2Sergio MayerH-Index: 5
Last. Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
Abstract This study presents the main fractographic aspects and failure modes involved on the fracture of scarf repaired laminates submitted to tensile test, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. A detailed analysis of the fractographic aspects was carried out correlating them to the failure modes, the local crack propagation, and the mechanical performance of the scarf joint. SEM analyses showed cohesive failure of the adhesive film associated with a strong mechanical anchoring be...
Source
#1Guowei Chen (U of G: University of Guelph)
#2Amar K. Mohanty (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 72
Last. Manjusri Misra (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 83
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a type of thermoplastic polymer with high thermal and mechanical performance that has wide applications in various industries, such as precise electronics, electrical devices, chemical containers, automobile and aerospace components, etc. By adding carbon in different forms (including carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, graphite, graphene and carbon black) into the PPS matrix, one is able to form composites that have better mechanical properties and multiple ...
Source
#1Dan Dobrotă (Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu)H-Index: 7
The ultrasonic welding of polymeric materials is one of the methods often used in practice. However, each couple of material subjected to ultrasonic welding is characterized by different values of technological parameters. Therefore, the main objective of the research presented in this paper is to optimize the parameters for the ultrasonic welding of two materials, namely PBT-GF30 (70% polybutylene terephthalate + 30% fiber glass) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE). In this sense, the...
Source
#1Xuhai Xiong (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)H-Index: 16
#2Daosheng Wang (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)H-Index: 1
Last. Xu Cui (SAU: Shenyang Aerospace University)H-Index: 3
view all 7 authors...
Recently resistance welding (RW) technique have emerged as a viable alternative method for the joining of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. It is more cost‐efficient as opposed to the conv...
Source
#1Natassia L. Batista (UNESP: Sao Paulo State University)H-Index: 8
#2Konstantinos Anagnostopoulos (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 1
Last. Hyonny Kim (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The crystallization behavior of thermoplastic matrix is considered as an important property which can highly affect for the mechanical and thermal properties of laminated composite structures. This manuscript aims to evaluate the influence of different degrees of crystallinity induced in polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) / carbon fiber laminates, processed by hot compression molding. In the present study, the morphology, thermal and mechanical properties (compression, interlaminar shear stres...
2 CitationsSource
#1Jap Cunha (ITA: Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica)
#1J.A.P. Cunha (ITA: Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica)H-Index: 1
Last. Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende (UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)H-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
Tensile tests were assessed to evaluate the ageing effects on carbon fiber/epoxy resin laminates exposed to ozone and water immersion. Laminates with distinct fiber arrangements (unidirectional - U...
Source
#1Bing Du (Chongqing University)H-Index: 1
#2Liming Chen (Chongqing University)H-Index: 10
Last. Weiguo Li (Chongqing University)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The utilization of fiber reinforced thermoplastics (FRTP) is expected to fulfill lightweight demand in mass-produced aerospace products. Facing the unavoidable assembly of FRTP parts, fusion bonding methods such as resistance welding are promising compared with mechanical joint and adhesive bonding. In this paper, a procedure has been brought out to understand the relationship between processing conditions and performance of the FRTP welding joints. The adherends were continuous glass f...
1 CitationsSource
#1Justyna Zygmuntowicz (Warsaw University of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Paweł Falkowski (Warsaw University of Technology)H-Index: 4
Last. Waldemar Kaszuwara (Warsaw University of Technology)H-Index: 13
view all 6 authors...
1 CitationsSource