Cell death: a review of the major forms of apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy

Published on Jun 1, 2019in Cell Biology International3.612
路 DOI :10.1002/CBIN.11137
Mark Sean D'Arcy2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Hodges University)
: Cell death was once believed to be the result of one of two distinct processes, apoptosis (also known as programmed cell death) or necrosis (uncontrolled cell death); in recent years, however, several other forms of cell death have been discovered highlighting that a cell can die via a number of differing pathways. Apoptosis is characterised by a number of characteristic morphological changes in the structure of the cell, together with a number of enzyme-dependent biochemical processes. The result being the clearance of cells from the body, with minimal damage to surrounding tissues. Necrosis, however, is generally characterised to be the uncontrolled death of the cell, usually following a severe insult, resulting in spillage of the contents of the cell into surrounding tissues and subsequent damage thereof. Failure of apoptosis and the resultant accumulation of damaged cells in the body can result in various forms of cancer. An understanding of the pathways is therefore important in developing efficient chemotherapeutics. It has recently become clear that there exists a number of subtypes of apoptosis and that there is an overlap between apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of the current knowledge relating to the various forms of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, oncosis, pyroptosis and autophagy. This will provide researchers with a summary of the major forms of cell death and allow them to compare and contrast between them.
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