Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Mexican children with community-acquired pneumonia: experience in a tertiary care hospital
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Infection and Drug Resistance2.984
· DOI :10.2147/IDR.S193076
Purpose: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Information on the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in pediatric patients with CAP in Mexico is limited. The aim of this study was to detect M. pneumoniae in hospitalized pediatric patients with CAP. Patients and methods: We performed a descriptive study in a tertiary-level pediatric reference center, obtaining 154 respiratory samples from patients under 18 years of age and diagnosed with CAP. M. pneumoniae was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the p1 and CARDS genes. Complete blood cell count, measurement of C-reactive protein and detection of IgM and IgG anti-P1 were performed. Clinical, epidemiological and radiological data of the patients were analyzed. Results: M. pneumoniae was detected by real-time PCR in 26.6% of the samples. 39% of the cases occurred during the spring season. A total of 83% of the patients with M. pneumoniae had some underlying disease; renal disease, autoimmune disease and primary immunodeficiencies had a significant association with M. pneumoniae CAP. Children under 6 years of age represented 53.7% of the cases. Fever and cough were the most frequent symptoms. IgM and IgG were positive in 1.9% and 14% of the patients, respectively. In the chest X-ray, 17.1% of the patients showed multifocal alveolar infiltrates pattern. The complications in this series were 26.8%. The mortality in this study was 4.9%. Conclusion: This is the first report in Mexico about M. pneumoniae as a causal agent of CAP in a tertiary care pediatric hospital using real-time PCR and serology. M. pneumoniae was responsible for 26.6% of the cases and was frequent in children under 6 years of age. In addition, we described the clinical presentation in patients with underlying diseases.