Towards aerospace grade thin-ply composites: Effect of ply thickness, fibre, matrix and interlayer toughening on strength and damage tolerance

Published on Nov 10, 2018in Composites Science and Technology7.094
· DOI :10.1016/J.COMPSCITECH.2018.08.037
Joël Cugnoni26
Estimated H-index: 26
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne),
R. Amacher4
Estimated H-index: 4
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
+ 7 AuthorsJohn Botsis37
Estimated H-index: 37
(EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
Abstract Thin-ply composites represent a promising approach to further improve the performance of carbon fibre composite structures thanks to their ability to delay the onset of matrix cracking and delamination up to the point of fibre dominated failure. However, this increased strength comes with a more brittle failure response which raises concerns on damage tolerance. Thus a careful material optimization is needed to address this trade-off. In this work, eight different formulations of thin-ply composites ranging from low modulus to high modulus carbon fibres are evaluated to understand the effects of the fibre and matrix constituents on the onset of damage and strength in unnotched tensile (UNT) tests of quasi isotropic laminates for ply thicknesses between 300 and 30 microns. The obtained experimental data are combined in master curve diagrams for simplified material selection process. It is observed that certain thin-ply composites with a ply thickness t  95% of the fibre strain). The newly developed composite is further optimized to improve damage tolerance by toughening the resin and selected interfaces. The effect of those modifications on damage tolerance are evaluated through compression strength after impact (CAI) tests and open hole tensile tests (OHT). It is found that an optimized interlayer toughened thin-ply composite based on 68 microns plies of intermediate modulus fibre can reach both outstanding strength properties with comparable or better CAI and OHT strength compared to current aerospace grade composites.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
53 Citations
255 Citations
83 Citations
#1Miguel González Herráez (UPM: Technical University of Madrid)H-Index: 12
#2Carlos Alonso González (UPM: Technical University of Madrid)H-Index: 9
Last. Claudio S. Lopes (IMDEA)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Abstract A numerical framework to obtain the crack resistance curve ( R -curve) and its corresponding softening law for fracture analysis in composite materials under small scale bridging has been developed. The use case addresses the intralaminar transverse tensile fracture of a unidirectional ply of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer AS4/8552. The R -curve is computed for this material using a micromechanical embedded model corresponding to the intralaminar transverse tensile fracture toughness c...
14 CitationsSource
#1G. GuillametH-Index: 6
#2Albert TuronH-Index: 28
Last. Peter Linde (EADS: Airbus)H-Index: 14
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Delaminations at the free-edges of a laminated composite under tension can be triggered by transverse cracks or by high interlaminar stresses. The capability for predicting these phenomena when the ply thickness is reduced (thin-ply laminates) is particularly challenging because damage mechanisms are delayed or even suppressed. In this work, an existing energy-based failure criterion and a simplified finite element model with cohesive elements are combined to develop a computationally i...
14 CitationsSource
#1Tamer A. Sebaey (Qatar University)H-Index: 18
#2Elsadig Mahdi (Qatar University)H-Index: 27
Abstract Thin-ply composites are currently receiving specific attention from researchers due to their capabilities to delay matrix cracking. In this paper, the aim is to design a hybrid laminate that contains both thin- and normal plies. The objective is to improve the tolerance of normal plies by adding thin-plies to the composite in different configurations. Two alternatives were designed, tested, and compared to the specimens made of traditional plies. Impact and compression after impact test...
33 CitationsSource
#1Gergely CzélH-Index: 14
#2Meisam Jalalvand (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 19
Last. Michael R Wisnom (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 74
view all 3 authors...
Abstract A comprehensive set of thin-ply pseudo-ductile unidirectional interlayer hybrid composite materials comprising S-glass and a variety of thin carbon prepregs was designed and characterised. Unique elastic–yielding–hardening type stress–strain responses similar to those of ductile metals were achieved through fragmentation and stable pull-out of the carbon layers, generating a range of initial moduli, pseudo-yield strains, plateau stresses and pseudo ductile strains for the various config...
83 CitationsSource
#1Pedro P. Camanho (Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto)H-Index: 70
#2A. Arteiro (Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto)H-Index: 14
Last. M. VoglerH-Index: 10
view all 5 authors...
Abstract A new three-dimensional failure criteria for fibre-reinforced composite materials based on structural tensors is presented. The transverse and the longitudinal failure mechanisms are formulated considering different criteria: for the transverse failure mechanisms, the proposed three-dimensional invariant-based criterion is formulated directly from invariant theory. Regarding the criteria for longitudinal failure, tensile fracture in the fibre direction is predicted using a noninteractin...
70 CitationsSource
#1Tomonaga Okabe (Tohoku University)H-Index: 36
#2Yuta Kumagai (Tohoku University)H-Index: 4
Last. Masaaki Nishikawa (Kyoto University)H-Index: 19
view all 4 authors...
This paper explains previous studies addressing the onset crack or matrix crack in composite materials and presents a brief history of this field for the understanding of readers. Next, the analytic criterion and periodic unit cell analysis are compared for thermosetting or thermoplastic matrices. For both matrix resins, comparisons show that the Tsai-Hill criterion obviously cannot reproduce the results obtained from the periodic unit cell analysis, and the Hashin and Christensen criteria may g...
4 CitationsSource
#1Tomonaga Okabe (Tohoku University)H-Index: 36
#2H. Imamura (Tohoku University)H-Index: 1
Last. Ramesh Talreja (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 42
view all 6 authors...
This work is concerned with the conditions for formation of the first (initial) cracks in composite laminates with cutouts or ply drop-offs subjected to in-plane loading. We study here the crack fo ...
26 CitationsSource
#1Tamer A. Sebaey (Qatar University)H-Index: 18
#2Josep CostaH-Index: 49
Last. Joan A. MayugoH-Index: 21
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Failure of a ply due to transverse loading is one of the mechanisms that was taken into account in physically-based failure criteria, used in composites design. However, experimental data are scarce and the measurement techniques used in the past are time consuming and involve a lot of specimen handling during testing. While some physical information is currently well consolidated (such as the dependence of the strength on ply thickness, or in situ strength), there still remain relevant...
40 CitationsSource
#1R. Amacher (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 4
#2Joël Cugnoni (EPFL: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)H-Index: 26
Last. Clemens Dransfeld (University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW)H-Index: 13
view all 6 authors...
Thin-ply composites are rapidly gaining interest in the composite industry, not only because of the larger design possibilities that they offer, but also because of positive size effects that have been shown to improve performance in various loading conditions [1]. In this work, carbon fiber-epoxy composites of different ply thicknesses (30-300 g/m(2) fiber areal weight) were produced from the same batch of Toray M40JB fiber and NorthTPT TP80ep matrix to study the influence of ply thickness on t...
150 CitationsSource
#1A. Arteiro (University of Porto)H-Index: 14
#2Giuseppe Catalanotti (University of Porto)H-Index: 22
Last. Pedro P. Camanho (University of Porto)H-Index: 70
view all 5 authors...
Abstract A micro-mechanical finite element model of a composite sublaminate is proposed to study the mechanical response of ultra-thin plies, consisting of a representative volume element of a 90 ° thin lamina in-between two homogenised ± θ ° plies. Random fibre distributions, materially and statistically equivalent to real distributions, are analysed. A three-dimensional computational micro-mechanics framework, with a special focus on the elastic–plastic and damage constitutive behaviours of th...
81 CitationsSource
Cited By45
Abstract null null Composite deployable structures are becoming increasingly important for the space industry, emerging as an alternative to conventional metallic mechanical systems in space applications. In most cases, the life-cycle of these structures includes a single deployment sequence, once the spacecraft is in orbit. So long as reliability is ensured, this fact opens the possibility of using the materials past their elastic regime and, possibly, beyond the initiation of damage, increasin...
#1Lucas Lisbôa Vignoli (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 4
#2Jaime Tupiassú Pinho de Castro (PUC-Rio: Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 12
AbstractThis paper carries out a parametric analysis to evaluate the effect of circular holes on the strength of unidirectional laminae. Stroh Formalism is used to describe the elastic stresses aro...
1 CitationsSource
#1J.A. Kupski (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 3
#2S. Teixeira De Freitas (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 6
Abstract Adhesive bonding is one of the most suitable joining technologies in terms of weight and mechanical performance for current carbon fiber reinforced polymer aircraft fuselage structures. However, traditional joint topologies such as single overlap joints induce high peel stresses, resulting in sudden failure and low joint strength when compared to metal adherends. This drawback in using carbon fiber reinforced polymer is hindering their performance and efficiency in full-scale structures...
3 CitationsSource
#1Xinchen Ni (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 5
#2Reed Kopp (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 3
Last. Brian L. Wardle (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 43
view all 13 authors...
Abstract In situ X-ray synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) of carbon fiber composite laminates reveals the first-ever qualitative and quantitative comparisons of 3D progressive damage effects introduced by two mechanical enhancement technologies: aligned nanoscale fiber interlaminar reinforcement and thin-ply layers. The technologies were studied individually and in combination, using aerospace-grade unidirectional prepreg standard-thickness prepreg (‘std-ply’) and thin-ply composit...
1 CitationsSource
#1Benedikt Kötter (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 3
#2Janina Endres (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)
Last. Bodo Fiedler (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 27
view all 6 authors...
Abstract This study investigates the influence of load ratio and impact damage on the fatigue behaviour of high-performance carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) with areal fibre weights between 30 gsm and 360 gsm. For undamaged samples, the ultimate tensile and compressive strength, as well as the fatigue properties, are evaluated with regard to their layer thicknesses. The fatigue tests were performed under tension-tension (R=0.1), tension-compression (R=-0.5) and compression-compression (R=...
#1Johann Körbelin (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 4
#2Benedikt Kötter (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 3
Last. Bodo Fiedler (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 27
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Low impact resistance and high notch sensitivity are significant drawbacks of carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP). The addition of carbon nanoparticles (CNP), a third phase, reduces this deficit through additional energy-consuming mechanisms. The influence of CNP modification on strength and damage behaviour cannot be separated from the effect of layer thickness because it controls the stress state in the entire laminate. This study investigates the influence of few-layer graphene (...
1 CitationsSource
Fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites are gaining popularity in many industries due to their short consolidation cycles, among other advantages over thermoset-based composites. Computer aided manufacturing processes, such as filament winding and automated fiber placement, have been used conventionally for thermoset-based composites. The automated processes can be adapted to include in situ consolidation for the fabrication of thermoplastic-based composites. In this paper, a detailed literatu...
#1Zhang Xiaoxiang (Zhongyuan University of Technology)H-Index: 1
#2Tang Yuyuan (Zhongyuan University of Technology)
Last. Li Bo (Zhongyuan University of Technology)
view all 5 authors...
The 3-D (three-dimensional)cellular woven fabrics composites were manufactured based on the 3-D angle-interlock woven fabric. The impact responses and energy absorption of the composite were tested in a modified split Hopkinson bar (SHPB) apparatus. A unit-cell model of the composite was established from the microstructure features, the fiber volume fraction and mechanical behaviors of the model were same as the test sample, A user subroutine VUMAT (FORTRAN Vectorized User-Material) was develope...
#1Yamada KoheiH-Index: 3
#2Benedikt Kötter (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 3
Last. Masaki Hojo (Kyoto University)H-Index: 34
view all 8 authors...
Abstract In this study, fiber metal laminates (FMLs), which consisted of thin-ply prepreg and stainless steel layers with a ply thickness of 0.04 mm, were fabricated with the aim of suppressing the fiber breakage that decreases the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength. Then, static flexural tests of FMLs were conducted to investigate the effects of the number of metal layers on the failure mode and mechanical properties during static out-of-plane loading, and the results were compared with th...
#1Yuejie Cao (Hefei University of Technology)H-Index: 3
#2Duquan Zuo (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 2
Last. Tong Earn Tay (NUS: National University of Singapore)H-Index: 17
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Thin-ply laminated composites have recently gained increasing attention in the aerospace engineering field, due to enhanced design possibilities and positive size effects with regard to decreasing ply thickness. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of thin-ply laminate and TC21 titanium alloy hybrid joints with double-lap bolted structure under quasi-static loading was studied experimentally. X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning and SEM microcosmic imaging at special stages of the ...
1 CitationsSource