Fluxametamide: A novel isoxazoline insecticide that acts via distinctive antagonism of insect ligand-gated chloride channels.
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology3.963
· DOI :10.1016/J.PESTBP.2018.02.002
Abstract Fluxametamide is a novel wide-spectrum insecticide that was discovered and synthesized by Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd. To identify the mode of action of fluxametamide, we first performed [ 3 H]4′-ethynyl-4- n -propylbicycloorthobenzoate (EBOB) binding assays. Fluxametamide potently inhibited the specific binding of [ 3 H]EBOB to housefly-head membranes, suggesting that fluxametamide affects insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls). Next, the antagonism of housefly GABACls and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) was examined using the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) method. Fluxametamide inhibited agonist responses in both ion channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in the nanomolar range, indicating that this insecticide is a ligand-gated chloride channel (LGCC) antagonist. The insecticidal and LGCC antagonist potencies of fluxametamide against fipronil-susceptible and fipronil-resistant strains of small brown planthoppers and two-spotted spider mites, which are insensitive to fipronil, were evaluated. Fluxametamide exhibited similar levels of both activities in these fipronil-susceptible and fipronil-resistant arthropod pests. These data indicate that fluxametamide exerts distinctive antagonism of arthropod GABACls by binding to a site different from those for existing antagonists. In contrast to its profound actions on the arthropod LGCCs, the antagonistic activity of fluxametamide against rat GABACls and human glycine-gated chloride channels was nearly insignificant, suggesting that fluxametamide has high target-site selectivity for arthropods over mammals. Overall, fluxametamide is a new type of LGCC antagonist insecticide with excellent safety for mammals at the target-site level.