Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) management: A study on the Brazilian recycling routes

Published on Feb 10, 2018in Journal of Cleaner Production7.246
· DOI :10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017.10.219
Pablo Ribeiro Dias8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul),
Arthur Antonio Machado2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)
+ 1 AuthorsAndrea Bernardes41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)
Abstract Processing of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a growing issue and a worldwide challenge due to an enormously large volume of WEEE being generated around the world. WEEE typically contains valuable and precious materials in addition to some hazardous components, which could potentially lead to economic and environmental benefit if recycled properly. In Brazil, the WEEE generation has significantly increased in the past decade and the best process routes to recycle it remain little explored. This study shows a systematic analysis of WEEE processing procedures based on the information found and mapped from 134 recycling companies active in Brazil by contacting them and confirming activity. It was found that in spite of the recent implementation of national waste management policies, federal and local government do not have control over the number of active WEEE recycling companies in the country. It was possible to explain the role of the different agents in the Brazilian recycling scenario. Moreover, this study shows that 89% of the Brazilian recycling companies only undertake the pretreatment phase in the recycling process – sorting and dismantling - and that at least 92% dismantle WEEE manually. Finally, it is shown that WEEE that is more complex to recycle is still being shipped abroad for foreign downstream companies and that the revenue generated by the WEEE recycling market in Brazil can financially support up to five agents involved in the WEEE flow.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
52 Citations
1 Citations
1 Author (Guangming Li)
1 Citations
#1Amit Kumar (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 102
#2Maria E. Holuszko (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 9
Last. Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa (USP: University of São Paulo)H-Index: 23
view all 3 authors...
Abstract E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world in terms of volume and its environmental impact on the planet. The existence of precious metals in the e-waste stream provides a major economic benefit for recycling industries but due to the presence of hazardous chemicals, a proper recycling technique is required prior to the disposal of the e-waste. This paper presents an overview of the statistics on global e-waste generation and the sales of new electrical equipment a...
265 CitationsSource
#1Artem Golev (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 14
#2Glen Corder (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 23
Abstract The existing practices and opportunities for material recovery from end-of-life (EoL) consumer products depend on multiple factors. Some products are relatively simple in terms of metal and other material mix, while others are very complex often containing high concentration of precious and rare metals. With insufficient scale, feasible options for recycling are significantly limited. The major efforts in managing e-waste in Australia, under the Product Stewardship Act 2011, include the...
26 CitationsSource
#1Grazia Cecere (University of Paris-Sud)H-Index: 13
#2Arianna Martinelli (Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies)H-Index: 9
The increased number and shorter life cycles of electronic devices are resulting in a rapidly growing stream of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) worldwide. The environmentally sound disposal of this waste stream is a complex activity that involves several steps and stakeholders. The aim of this article is to investigate the process of knowledge creation in WEEE management, based on publications data retrieved from the Thompson Web of Science (WoS). Using a dataset of publications...
8 CitationsSource
#1Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio (USP: University of São Paulo)H-Index: 15
#2Cláudia Gaudência Gonçalves (Grupo México)H-Index: 2
Last. Etelvino J. H. Bechara (USP: University of São Paulo)H-Index: 51
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Introduction Information on the prevalence of lead exposure is essential to formulate efficient public health policies. Developed countries have implemented successful public policies for the prevention and control of lead poisoning. In the United States, Canada, Japan and the European Union, for instance, periodically repeated prevalence studies show that blood lead levels (BLLs) in children have decreased overall. Although BLL of Latino children in the U.S. have also dropped in recent...
21 CitationsSource
#1Verônica Ghisolfi (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 2
#2Gisele de Lorena Diniz Chaves (UFES: Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo)H-Index: 9
Last. Lúcia Helena XavierH-Index: 8
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The structure of reverse logistics for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is essential to minimize the impacts of their improper disposal. In this context, the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy (BSWP) was a regulatory milestone in Brazil, submitting WEEE to the mandatory implementation of reverse logistics systems, involving the integration of waste pickers on the shared responsibility for the life cycle of products. This article aims to measure the impact of such legal incenti...
51 CitationsSource
#1Fabián EchegarayH-Index: 7
#2Francesca Hansstein (SUFE: Shanghai University of Finance and Economics)H-Index: 4
Abstract Recycling electronic waste (e-waste) is a major concern due to the risks associated with waste management, namely environmental pollution and negative consequences on individual health. Besides the need for appropriate policies and legislation for e-waste management, consumer awareness about recycling is an important factor. This paper discusses determinants of consumer intentions and behavior towards e-waste recycling in the major metropolitan areas of Brazil, where the consumption of ...
125 CitationsSource
#1Teresa BrownH-Index: 9
#2N.E. IdoineH-Index: 6
Last. Tom BideH-Index: 9
view all 7 authors...
The latest edition of this annual publication from the British Geological Survey (BGS). This volume contains mineral production statistics for the five year period from 2011 to 2015, for more than 70 mineral commodities, by country worldwide. It is the latest publication from the World Mineral Statistics dataset which began in 1913. The information contained in the dataset, and associated publications, is compiled from a wide range of sources: home and overseas government departments, national s...
8 Citations
#1Ricardo Gabbay de Souza (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 2
#2João C. N. Clímaco (UC: University of Coimbra)H-Index: 28
Last. Osvaldo Luiz Gonçalves Quelhas (Federal Fluminense University)H-Index: 18
view all 6 authors...
Brazil has an increasing rate of e-waste generation, but there are currently few adequate management systems in operation, with the largest share of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) going to landfill sites or entering informal chains. The National Solid Waste Policy (2010) enforces the implementation of reverse logistics systems under the shared responsibility of consumers, companies and governments. The objective of this paper is to assess sustainability and prioritise system al...
56 CitationsSource
#1Pablo Ribeiro Dias (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 8
#2Selene Javimczik (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 2
Last. Andrea Bernardes (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 41
view all 5 authors...
Photovoltaic modules (or panels) are important power generators with limited lifespans. The modules contain known pollutants and valuable materials such as silicon, silver, copper, aluminum and glass. Thus, recycling such waste is of great importance. To date, there have been few published studies on recycling silver from silicon photovoltaic panels, even though silicon technology represents the majority of the photovoltaic market. In this study, the extraction of silver from waste modules is ju...
62 CitationsSource
Abstract Product obsolescence represents a major challenge for sustainability. Deliberate curtailment of product lifespan and the symbolic devaluation of devices appear especially acute in the electronics segment, thus pushing up e-waste volumes. However, consumer reactions to these processes as well as their own enactment of psychological obsolescence remain understudied. Based on a representative urban sample survey of 806 Brazilians, this paper discusses the dissonance between consumers' prod...
42 CitationsSource
Cited By46
#1Wesley Douglas Oliveira Silva (UFPE: Federal University of Pernambuco)H-Index: 2
#2Danielle Costa Morais (UFPE: Federal University of Pernambuco)H-Index: 17
Abstract null null The linear model practiced in developing countries as Brazil to solid waste management can no longer absorb the amount of waste generated by the cities’ economic activities, and it hinders the self-recovery ability of the environment leading to environmental problems. Consequently, it is necessary a transition to a circular economy model so that environmental problems may be avoided. Brazilian authorities have already been mobilized to seek ways to transitioning, and one way i...
#1R.P. de Oliveira (USP: University of São Paulo)H-Index: 5
view all 3 authors...
Abstract End-of-life light-emitting diodes are electronic waste containing valuable and critical metals such as rare earth elements (REE) and gallium. These metals face the risk of supply disruption with increasing demand and the difficulty of their extraction and separation through mineral and metallurgical processing. Hence, this study aims to provide a descriptive insight into recovery techniques of light-emitting diodes (LED) waste using examples from other e-waste such as fluorescent lamps,...
1 CitationsSource
#1Jianquan Guo (USST: University of Shanghai for Science and Technology)H-Index: 4
#2Bingzi Tang (USST: University of Shanghai for Science and Technology)
Last. Mitsuo Gen (Ridai: Tokyo University of Science)H-Index: 68
view all 5 authors...
As the increasing trend of global consumption of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the recycling of WEEE has been thought highly of. In order to solve the problems of high economic cost, environmental detrimental caused by improper recycling, ignorance of social benefits of recycling, uncertain recycling amount and single recycling channel in recycling process of WEEE, this paper proposes a sustainable multi-objective WEEE double recycling channel fuzzy programming model based on...
#1Francine Duarte Castro (University of Brescia)H-Index: 3
#2Laura CutaiaH-Index: 1
Last. Mentore Vaccari (University of Brescia)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The fleet of electric vehicles has increased worldwide, pushed by the necessity of building a low-carbon economy. In Brazil, the number of new electric cars registered per year is also increasing, especially after the promulgation of the Program Route 2030. Collection rates and management criteria for end-of-life lithium-ion batteries (EOL LIBs) in the country are still not defined. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to assess how big the market of electric cars (EC) will be in Brazil i...
The major roadblock for recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) depends on the viability of sorting process, which is a complex task, involving various techniques such as sink float, froth flotation, optical separation and manual separation, etc. This makes the sorting process highly time consuming and expensive. The primary aim of this investigation is to study the properties of polymeric blends formulated from computer keyboards, by avoiding high end sorting procedure to...
1 CitationsSource
#2Marianna Ottoni (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 1
Last. Josh Lepawsky (St. John's University)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The significant e-waste generation in the Americas represents an important opportunity to implement waste recovery systems under the Circular Economy model. This paper conducts an exploratory analysis about the e-waste management at different scales (economic blocs and country levels) in the American continent, emphasizing generation patterns, e-waste fluxes and the regulation frameworks in Brazil and Canada in order to identify how the e-waste management options are driven by specific ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Muhittin SagnakH-Index: 7
Last. Ogulcan Yazgan (Yaşar University)
view all 4 authors...
Abstract In emerging economies, electronic waste is an important problem, because it negatively affects the health of staff and people, and causes pollution. Moreover, the location of the collection center has a crucial role in sustainable supply chains. Therefore, in this study, a framework was proposed to identify the location of sustainable collection centers for e-waste. The criteria set includes 3 main criteria, and 23 sub-criteria, and 7 different location options. The main criteria cover ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Daniel Baratieri Valente (Federal Fluminense University)
#2Ricardo César da Silva Guabiroba (Federal Fluminense University)H-Index: 2
Last. Aldara da Silva César (Federal Fluminense University)H-Index: 12
view all 5 authors...
An opportunity to reduce the costs of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection operation is to include WEEE in the already existing selective collection flows (inflows that present idleness). In this context, this paper aims to ascertain whether it is attractive for recycling cooperatives in a determined Brazilian municipality to include a selective collection of WEEE in their operating systems. This research uses a method structured in eight steps, involving WEEE generation, ...
#1Manuel Vargas (Usach: University of Santiago, Chile)H-Index: 8
#2Miguel Alfaro (Usach: University of Santiago, Chile)H-Index: 7
Last. Naudy Leal (Usach: University of Santiago, Chile)
view all 9 authors...
This article reviews studies on the application of reverse logistics in solid waste from the construction industry. The main objective is to provide a summary of current knowledge and specific areas for future research. In addition, construction, as an economic sector, is in a continuous search for new tools to improve its processes, so this research provides the current situation of the relationship between reverse logistics and solid waste in the industry. The review methodology was content an...
#1Roberta Alves (UFSJ: Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei)H-Index: 2
#2Karen Lana Alves Ferreira (UFSJ: Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei)H-Index: 1
Last. Flavia Tuane Ferreira Moraes (UNIFEI: Universidade Federal de Itajubá)H-Index: 2
view all 4 authors...
The objective of this study was to conduct Action Research (AR) to create and implement a WEEE management program that was in line with the BNPSW regulations. The city chosen for this study was Sao Joao del Rei (SJDR) located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using AR it was possible to structure a WEEE management program that involved stakeholders from the city administration, the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei, and representatives from the private sector. The program ultimately col...
1 CitationsSource