Explosive Properties of Melt Cast Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN)

Published on May 4, 2017in Central European Journal of Energetic Materials1.133
· DOI :10.22211/CEJEM/68471
Martin Künzel7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UPA: University of Pardubice),
Robert Matyáš13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UPA: University of Pardubice)
+ 1 AuthorsJiri Pachman11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UPA: University of Pardubice)
Figures & Tables
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1 Citations
6 Authors (Malcolm D. Cook, ..., Phil Cheese)
1 Citations
173 Citations
#1Virginia W. Manner (LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory)H-Index: 11
#2Daniel N. Preston (LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory)H-Index: 6
Last. Brian Jensen (LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory)H-Index: 18
view all 7 authors...
Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a melt-castable explosive with impressive performance, similar to the well-known related nitrate ester, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Though ETN has been known since 1849, its properties have not been thoroughly investigated. We report here the first 1/2′′ copper cylinder tests of ETN, compared with PETN. We discuss detonation and wall expansion velocity, along with diameter effect information in unconfined rate stick tests. The detonation velocity of ETN ...
11 CitationsSource
#1Robert Matyáš (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 13
#2Martin Künzel (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 7
Last. Ondřej Vodochodský (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
The article describes the molecular structure and fundamental physical properties of erythritol tetranitrate (ETN). Although ETN is simple nitrate ester this explosive is described in the literature relatively briefly. The molecular structure of ETN was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of the ETN molecule is composed of the central carbohydrate chain and two pairs of facing coplanar ONO2 groups. The crystal density of ETN is 1.827 g cm−3. It is a non-hygroscopic c...
12 CitationsSource
#1Virginia W. MannerH-Index: 11
#2Bryce C. TappanH-Index: 19
Last. Geoffrey W. BrownH-Index: 12
view all 5 authors...
The explosive erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) has been known since 1849 and has applications as a vasodilator; however, little is known about its structure and bonding. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), along with characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystal packing and morphology are discussed in relation to explosive handling sensitivity (impact, spark, and fr...
42 CitationsSource
#1Qi-Long Yan (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 26
#2Martin Künzel (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 7
Last. Monika Bartošková (Brno University of Technology)H-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
Abstract In this paper, the thermal stability and decomposition mechanism functions of 10 nitric esters including nitroglycerine (NG), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), trimethylolethane trinitrate (TMETN), dipentaerythritol hexanitrate (DiPEHN), trimethylolpropane trinitrate (TMPTN), erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), xylitol pentanitrate (XPN), sorbitol hexanitrate (SHN), mannitol hexanitrate (MHN) and nitroisobutylglycerol trinitrate (NIBGT) are determined by means of non-isothermal TG and DSC...
28 CitationsSource
#1Muhamed Sućeska (NTU: Nanyang Technological University)H-Index: 17
#2How Ghee Ang (NTU: Nanyang Technological University)H-Index: 9
Last. Hay Yee Serene Chan (NTU: Nanyang Technological University)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Due to its simplicity, the Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson (BKW) equation of state has been used in many thermochemical codes in the calculation of detonation properties. Much work has been done in the calibration of the BKW EOS parameters to achieve agreement with experimental detonation velocities and pressures thus resulting in many different sets of BKW constants (α, β, κ and θ) and covolumes of detonation products, with varying levels of accuracy over broad density limits, i.e. broad pressure li...
9 CitationsSource
#1Martin Künzel (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 7
#2O. Němec (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 5
Last. Robert Matyáš (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 13
view all 3 authors...
This paper focuses on ammonium nitrate based explosives sensitized with erythritol tetranitrate. Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is an ester of nitric acid and erythritol. It is a low melting crystalline solid with explosive properties similar to those of pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Experiments were conducted in order to determine any sensitizing effect this compound might have on three basic types of ammonium nitrate based mixtures - powdered, slurry and emulsion explosives. According to the re...
5 Citations
#1Tomáš Musil (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 6
#2Robert Matyáš (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 13
Last. Aleš Růžička (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 31
view all 4 authors...
18 CitationsSource
#1Robert Matyáš (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 13
#2Jakub Šelešovský (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 7
Last. Tomáš Musil (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexa...
41 CitationsSource
Thermal behaviors, vapor pressures, densities, and drop weight impact results, as well as analytical protocols, are reported for three tetranitrate esters: erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), 1,4-dinitrato-2,3-dinitro-2,3bis(nitratomethylene) butane (DNTN), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). ETN and DNTN both melt below 100 °C and have ambient vapor pressures comparable to TNT. While LC/MS was shown to be a viable technique for analysis of all three tetranitrate esters, only ETN was successfull...
61 CitationsSource
Abstract : The cylinder test (aka cylinder expansion or Cylex test) is a standard way to measure the Gurney velocity and determine the JWL coefficients of an explosive and has been utilized by the explosives community for many years. More recently, early time shock information has been found to be useful in examining the early pressure-time history during the expansion of the cylinder. Work in the area of nanoenergetics has prompted Air Force researchers to develop a miniaturized version of the ...
3 Citations
Cited By4
#1Daniel McDonaldH-Index: 1
#2Virginia W. MannerH-Index: 11
Last. Alexander H. MuellerH-Index: 9
view all 6 authors...
Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a melt-castable, solid explosive with significant performance, similar to the established nitrate ester, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Recent advances in synthesis coupled with the ease of procurement of erythritol make ETN a readily made improvised explosive. This has lead researchers to further investigate both the physical and chemical properties of ETN. Current uses of ETN in its molten form include additive manufacturing and melt-casting of explosive ...
#1Karlijn D.B. Bezemer (Netherlands Forensic Institute)H-Index: 5
#2Lindsay McLennan (URI: University of Rhode Island)H-Index: 5
Last. Arian van Asten (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 15
view all 13 authors...
Abstract Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) was prepared independently by two research groups from the USA and the Netherlands. The partially nitrated impurities present in ETN were studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to address the ultimate challenge in forensic explosives investigations, i.e., providing chemical and tactical information on the production and origin of the explosive material found at a crime scene. Accurate quantification of the tri-nitrated byproduct erythritol tr...
6 CitationsSource
#1Nicholas Lease (LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory)H-Index: 7
#2Lisa M. Kay (LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory)H-Index: 3
Last. Virginia W. Manner (LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory)H-Index: 11
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a well-studied homemade explosive (HME), which is known for its ability to be melt-cast at a fairly low temperature. We have observed dramatically increased handling sensitivity of ETN in the molten state, using temperature controlled drop-weight impact sensitivity measurements. Impact testing was performed using ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment using a 2.5 kg weight, a 0.8 kg striker, an anvil and sound detection equipment. Most experiments were perfor...
8 CitationsSource
#1Jiri Pachman (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 11
#2Martin Künzel (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 7
Last. J. Majzlík (UPA: University of Pardubice)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Detonation pressure is an important parameter describing the process of detonation. The paper compares three methods for determination of detonation pressure on the same explosive charge design. Pressed RDX/wax pellets with a density of \(1.66 \hbox { g cm}^{-3}\) were used as test samples. The following methods were used: flyer plate method, impedance window method, and detonation electric effect. Photonic Doppler velocimetry was used for particle velocity measurements in the first two cases. T...
9 CitationsSource