Explosive Properties of Melt Cast Erythritol Tetranitrate (ETN)

Published on May 4, 2017in Central European Journal of Energetic Materials1.133
· DOI :10.22211/CEJEM/68471
Martin Künzel7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UPA: University of Pardubice),
Robert Matyáš13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UPA: University of Pardubice)
+ 1 AuthorsJiri Pachman11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UPA: University of Pardubice)
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Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a melt-castable explosive with impressive performance, similar to the well-known related nitrate ester, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Though ETN has been known since 1849, its properties have not been thoroughly investigated. We report here the first 1/2′′ copper cylinder tests of ETN, compared with PETN. We discuss detonation and wall expansion velocity, along with diameter effect information in unconfined rate stick tests. The detonation velocity of ETN ...
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The article describes the molecular structure and fundamental physical properties of erythritol tetranitrate (ETN). Although ETN is simple nitrate ester this explosive is described in the literature relatively briefly. The molecular structure of ETN was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of the ETN molecule is composed of the central carbohydrate chain and two pairs of facing coplanar ONO2 groups. The crystal density of ETN is 1.827 g cm−3. It is a non-hygroscopic c...
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The explosive erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) has been known since 1849 and has applications as a vasodilator; however, little is known about its structure and bonding. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), along with characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystal packing and morphology are discussed in relation to explosive handling sensitivity (impact, spark, and fr...
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Abstract In this paper, the thermal stability and decomposition mechanism functions of 10 nitric esters including nitroglycerine (NG), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), trimethylolethane trinitrate (TMETN), dipentaerythritol hexanitrate (DiPEHN), trimethylolpropane trinitrate (TMPTN), erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), xylitol pentanitrate (XPN), sorbitol hexanitrate (SHN), mannitol hexanitrate (MHN) and nitroisobutylglycerol trinitrate (NIBGT) are determined by means of non-isothermal TG and DSC...
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This paper focuses on ammonium nitrate based explosives sensitized with erythritol tetranitrate. Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is an ester of nitric acid and erythritol. It is a low melting crystalline solid with explosive properties similar to those of pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Experiments were conducted in order to determine any sensitizing effect this compound might have on three basic types of ammonium nitrate based mixtures - powdered, slurry and emulsion explosives. According to the re...
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Thermal behaviors, vapor pressures, densities, and drop weight impact results, as well as analytical protocols, are reported for three tetranitrate esters: erythritol tetranitrate (ETN), 1,4-dinitrato-2,3-dinitro-2,3bis(nitratomethylene) butane (DNTN), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). ETN and DNTN both melt below 100 °C and have ambient vapor pressures comparable to TNT. While LC/MS was shown to be a viable technique for analysis of all three tetranitrate esters, only ETN was successfull...
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Abstract : The cylinder test (aka cylinder expansion or Cylex test) is a standard way to measure the Gurney velocity and determine the JWL coefficients of an explosive and has been utilized by the explosives community for many years. More recently, early time shock information has been found to be useful in examining the early pressure-time history during the expansion of the cylinder. Work in the area of nanoenergetics has prompted Air Force researchers to develop a miniaturized version of the ...
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Erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) is a melt-castable, solid explosive with significant performance, similar to the established nitrate ester, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Recent advances in synthesis coupled with the ease of procurement of erythritol make ETN a readily made improvised explosive. This has lead researchers to further investigate both the physical and chemical properties of ETN. Current uses of ETN in its molten form include additive manufacturing and melt-casting of explosive ...
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