Structure, Mechanical Behavior and Puncture Resistance of Grass Carp Scales
This work is conducted to investigate the hierarchical structure, mechanical behavior and fracture resistance of grass carp scales with different water contents (hydrated and dehydrated) and load conditions (uniaxial, biaxial and punch tests). The whole cross-section of scales is investigated, and it is found that the bony layer displays discontinuity and partly embeds in collagen layer. Four different locations are considered under both tensile and punch tests. The results of the uniaxial tensile test show a correlation between the failure mode and the distribution of surface morphology on scales. The biaxial test results show that there are minor differences in the tensile strength and the Young’ modulus compared with those of the uniaxial tests, but the ultimate strain is about 20% - 50%. Puncture tests are also conducted with different size of needles and different hardness silicon rubbers as substrate. The results show that the puncture force and deformation are dependent on the size of needle and the hardness of substrate. The failure pattern of scales is related to the water content. Radial cracks occur in the bony layer of hydrated scale, and the collagen fibers twist around the puncture site. However, the shear failure occurs in the bony layer of dehydrated scale.