Epigenetic Regulation of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator in Human Brain Tissue and Brain-Derived Cells

Published on Jan 24, 2016in Gene regulation and systems biology
· DOI :10.4137/GRSB.S30241
Martina Barnevik Olsson8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Gothenburg),
Karin Hultman11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Lund University)
+ 4 AuthorsChristina Jern43
Estimated H-index: 43
(University of Gothenburg)
Sources
Abstract
The serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is involved in both vital physiological brain processes, such as synaptic plasticity, and pathophysiological conditions, such as neurodegeneration and ischemic stroke. Recent data suggest that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of t-PA in human endothelial cells. However, there are limited data on epigenetic regulation of t-PA in human brain-derived cells. We demonstrate that treatment of cultured human neurons and human astrocytes with the histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and MS-275 resulted in a two- to threefold increase in t-PA mRNA and protein expression levels. Next, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay on treated astrocytes with antibodies directed against acetylated histones H3 and H4 (both markers of gene activation). Treatment with MS-275 and TSA for 24 hours resulted in a significant increase in H3 acetylation, which could explain the observed increase in t-PA gene activity after the inhibition of histone deacety-lation. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis of cultured human neurons and astrocytes, as well as human postmortem brain tissue, revealed a stretch of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the proximal t-PA promoter, whereas more upstream CpGs were highly methylated. Taken together, these results implicate involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of t-PA expression in the human brain.
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