Evidence for another response to ostracism : Solitude seeking

Published on Apr 1, 2016in Social Psychological and Personality Science
· DOI :10.1177/1948550615616169
Dongning Ren9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Purdue University),
Eric D. Wesselmann23
Estimated H-index: 23
(ISU: Illinois State University),
Kipling D. Williams79
Estimated H-index: 79
(Purdue University)
Sources
Abstract
People may choose to move toward, move against, or move away in reaction to threatening social situations. Ostracism induces both prosocial behaviors (moving toward) and antisocial behaviors (moving against). One reason that moving away may be missing from these observed responses is the absence of including such a response in experiments. In four studies, we examined whether ostracized individuals would avail themselves of a moving away response (i.e., seeking solitude), if offered, and also whether one individual difference—introversion—predicted higher desires to move away. Correlational data (Study 1) showed that participants who reported more ostracism experiences indicated stronger desires to be alone; three experiments (Studies 2–4) demonstrated that manipulated ostracism experience increases the desire to be alone in a subsequent activity, especially among introverts. These findings suggest that ostracized individuals may desire a phase of solitude to cope with the social pain.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1,478 Citations
12.8k Citations
491 Citations
References47
Newest
#1Kristin L. Sommer (CUNY: City University of New York)H-Index: 15
#2Frank J. Bernieri (OSU: Oregon State University)H-Index: 29
Some studies have revealed evidence for proximity seeking following interpersonal rejection, whereas other studies have found evidence of relational distancing (Williams, 2007). This study examined whether both processes could occur simultaneously within face-to-face interactions. Participants were accepted or rejected by one person and then interacted with a new partner for the purposes of an impression-formation task. Conversations were recorded and transcribed. Dyads containing a previously r...
20 CitationsSource
#1Eric D. Wesselmann (ISU: Illinois State University)H-Index: 23
#2Dongning Ren (Purdue University)H-Index: 9
Last. Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
view all 3 authors...
Ostracism (being ignored and excluded) and other forms of interpersonal rejection threaten individuals' physical and psychological well-being (Williams and Nida, 2011). Researchers often use the terms ostracism, social exclusion, and rejection interchangeably, but there are theoretical and empirical debates about the differential effects of these phenomena (Smart Richman and Leary, 2009; Williams, 2009; Bernstein and Claypool, 2012). We acknowledge these debates but choose to use the term ostrac...
41 CitationsSource
#1Michaela Pfundmair (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 9
#2Verena Graupmann (DePaul University)H-Index: 11
Last. Nilüfer Aydin (AAU: Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)H-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
We investigated how participants with collectivistic and individualistic orientation cope with social exclusion on a behavioral level. In Studies 1 and 2, we found participants with more individualistic orientation to indicate more antisocial behavioral intentions in response to exclusion than in response to inclusion; however, participants with more collectivistic orientation did not differ in their behavioral intentions between exclusion and inclusion. In the third and fourth study, we replica...
53 CitationsSource
#1Andrew H. Hales (Purdue University)H-Index: 9
#2Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
Last. Christopher I. Eckhardt (Purdue University)H-Index: 32
view all 3 authors...
Alcohol is commonly used to cope with social pain, but its effectiveness remains unknown. Existing theories offer diverging predictions. Pain overlap theory predicts that because alcohol numbs physical pain it should also numb people to the negative effects of ostracism. Alcohol myopia predicts that because alcohol intensifies salient emotions it should enhance the negative effects of ostracism. We conducted a field experiment in a bar, exposing individuals to ostracism or inclusion using Cyberb...
9 CitationsSource
#1Paolo Riva (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 19
#2Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
Last. Lorenzo Montali (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACTResearch suggests that ostracism increases susceptibility to indirect forms of social influence (e.g., conformity). Yet, no study to date has explored whether the effects of ostracism extend to the most direct form of social influence—obedience. We investigated whether ostracized individuals would be more likely to obey a direct command to do something effortful in uncomfortable conditions. Participants (N = 62) were randomly assigned to be included or ostracized in Cyberball, or assigne...
60 CitationsSource
#1Eva Jonas (University of Salzburg)H-Index: 34
#1Eva Jonas (University of Salzburg)H-Index: 5
Last. Markus Quirin (University of Osnabrück)H-Index: 20
view all 9 authors...
Abstract The social psychological literature on threat and defense is fragmented. Groups of researchers have focused on distinct threats, such as mortality, uncertainty, uncontrollability, or meaninglessness, and have developed separate theoretical frameworks for explaining the observed reactions. In the current chapter, we attempt to integrate old and new research, proposing both a taxonomy of variation and a common motivational process underlying people’s reactions to threats. Following variou...
211 CitationsSource
#1Robert J. CoplanH-Index: 39
#2Julie C. BowkerH-Index: 23
39 CitationsSource
#1Rob Eisinga (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 24
#2Manfred te Grotenhuis (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 17
Last. Ben Pelzer (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 15
view all 3 authors...
Rob Eisinga, Manfred te Grotenhuis, Ben Pelzer Department of Social Science Research Methods and Department of Sociology, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands October 8 2012 To obtain reliable measures researchers prefer multiple-item questionnaires rather than single-item tests. Multiple-item questionnaires may be costly however and time-consuming for participants to complete. They therefore frequently administer two-item measures, the reliability of which...
902 CitationsSource
#1Ximena B. Arriaga (Purdue University)H-Index: 25
#2Nicole M. Capezza (Stonehill College)H-Index: 10
Last. Kaleigh J. Sands (Purdue University)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Partner aggression negatively affects well-being in ways that the people experiencing aggression may not expect. Individuals (n = 171) who reported aggression by their current partner completed a longitudinal study. At the start of the study, participants rated their current happiness and how happy they expected to feel if their relationship were to end. The data revealed a partner aggression–unhappiness link and evidence of misforecasting future happiness: Committed individuals overestimated th...
18 CitationsSource
Ostracism involves two parties: The group doing the exclusion (i.e., sources) and the target of the exclusion. Research on social exclusion has often focused on the targets. The current study, however, considers the experiences of both sources and targets. Members of four-person groups were randomly assigned to the roles of targets or sources of exclusion, and then interacted in a face-to-face setting. Participants’ perceptions of themselves and other group members were then evaluated and also c...
29 CitationsSource
Cited By56
Newest
#1Olga Stavrova (Tilburg University)H-Index: 3
#1Olga Stavrova (Tilburg University)H-Index: 1
Last. Dongning Ren (Tilburg University)H-Index: 9
view all 2 authors...
Frequent social contact has been associated with better health and longer life. It remains unclear though whether there is an optimal contact frequency, beyond which contact is no longer positively...
Source
#2Muhammad AqeelH-Index: 15
view all 6 authors...
Purpose: Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized. However, there are no psychometrically designed instruments to measure this phenomenon in young adults. This study aims to develop a scale that measures ostracism efficiently and establishes the scale’s psychometric properties. Design/methodology/approach: The research design used for the study is “a mixed-method study using...
Source
#1Máire B. Ford (LMU: Loyola Marymount University)H-Index: 10
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, striking public health measures have been implemented to encourage physical distancing in order to slow the spread of disease. However, the impact of these measures on health and wellbeing is not well understood. In the current study a daily diary methodology was used to investigate the effects of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic on a variety of outcomes with 230 undergraduate students. Participants completed an online diary for 3 days, repor...
5 CitationsSource
#1Kevin D. Hochard (University of Chester)H-Index: 4
#2Lee Hulbert-Williams (University of Chester)H-Index: 8
Last. Shane McLoughlin (LJMU: Liverpool John Moores University)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Low social resilience (e.g., susceptibility to social anxiety, and social avoidance) has been associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes, and can lead to ostracism. Support services such as university counselling centres, which deal with non-diagnosable psychological distress, linked to low social resilience, require effective yet brief interventions deliverable by non-experts to meet service demands. As it is not always possible to prevent subjectively negative experience...
Source
#1Frank T. Doolaard (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 1
#2Marret K. Noordewier (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 7
Last. Eric van Dijk (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 67
view all 5 authors...
Abstract While a considerable body of literature has shown that leaving one's group is a negative experience that people tend to avoid, the current research focuses on the idea that on some occasions, leaving one's group can come with positive consequences. Across four experimental studies, we demonstrate that people's reactions to staying in versus leaving their group are modulated by their performance. Studies 1 and 2 showed that performing considerably below (vs. at the same level as) one's g...
Source
#1Katherine E. Adams (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
#2James M. Tyler (Purdue University)H-Index: 11
Promotion- and prevention-focused people are differentially sensitive to situational gains and losses, thus we reasoned that people's state regulatory focus following social exclusion should influence whether a social reconnection opportunity is perceived as safe (i.e., will exclusion persist or abate). To create an exclusion condition, all participants believed that other ostensible participants read their personal essay and chose not to work with them (i.e., all participants were excluded). Fo...
Source
#1Sina A. Klein (Heidelberg University)H-Index: 8
#2Selma Carolin Rudert (University of Koblenz and Landau)H-Index: 8
Last. Selma Carolin Rudert (Heidelberg University)
view all 2 authors...
Source
#1Marco Marinucci (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 3
#2Paolo Riva (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 19
K. D. Williams (2009) theorized that chronic social exclusion would inescapably lead to a detrimental stage of resignation, characterized by depression, alienation, unworthiness, and helplessness. ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Gökmen Arslan (Mehmet Akif Ersoy University)H-Index: 15
#2Muhammet Coşkun (Kafkas University)H-Index: 1
Internet addiction is a growingly prevalent behavioral addiction that causes numerous psychosocial problems. Investigating the causes and consequences of Internet addiction is fundamental to comprehend and prevent it. Therefore, the current study provided protective and promotive factors for undesired effects of social exclusion on Internet addiction. The study examined a moderated mediation model to test whether mindfulness moderated the mediating role of self-forgiveness in the association bet...
1 CitationsSource
#1Ying Yang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
#1Ying Yang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
Last. Huajian Cai (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
In a series of four studies (Ns = 245, 135, 155, 222), we explored the effects of viewing nature scenes on promoting recovery from ostracism. We first manipulated experiences of ostracism, then randomly assigned participants to view photos of either nature, urban scenes, or neutral objects. Across all four studies, participants who viewed nature photos reported significantly lower levels of state social pain, along with significantly higher levels of affect balance and self-esteem. Moreover, whe...
6 CitationsSource