Toward an Era of Restoration in Ecology: Successes, Failures, and Opportunities Ahead

Published on Nov 4, 2011in Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics14.041
· DOI :10.1146/ANNUREV-ECOLSYS-102710-145115
Katharine N. Suding45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of California, Berkeley)
Sources
Abstract
As an inevitable consequence of increased environmental degradation and anticipated future environmental change, societal demand for ecosystem restoration is rapidly increasing. Here, I evaluate successes and failures in restoration, how science is informing these efforts, and ways to better address decision-making and policy needs. Despite the multitude of restoration projects and wide agreement that evaluation is a key to future progress, comprehensive evaluations are rare. Based on the limited available information, restoration outcomes vary widely. Cases of complete recovery are frequently characterized by the persistence of species and abiotic processes that permit natural regeneration. Incomplete recovery is often attributed to a mixture of local and landscape constraints, including shifts in species distributions and legacies of past land use. Lastly, strong species feedbacks and regional shifts in species pools and climate can result in little to no recovery. More forward-looking paradigms, such a...
Figures & Tables
Download
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
891 Citations
1,316 Citations
536 Citations
References128
Newest
#1Richard J. HobbsH-Index: 94
#2Lauren M. HallettH-Index: 19
Last. Harold A. MooneyH-Index: 123
view all 4 authors...
Rapid, extensive, and ongoing environmental change increasingly demands that humans intervene in ecosystems to maintain or restore ecosystem services and biodiversity. At the same time, the basic principles and tenets of restoration ecology and conservation biology are being debated and reshaped. Escalating global change is resulting in widespread no-analogue environments and novel ecosystems that render traditional goals unachievable. Policymakers and the general public, however, have embraced ...
258 CitationsSource
#1Kerrie A. Wilson (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 54
#2Megan E. LulowH-Index: 6
Last. Marissa F. McBride (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 20
view all 8 authors...
P>1. In general, conservation seeks to prevent further habitat loss but in many cases there is a need to reverse habitat degradation. Restoration of habitat is necessary to achieve biodiversity conservation goals but often it is a costly and time-intensive process. Prioritization of where and when habitat is restored can help to ensure the cost-effective delivery of desired outcomes.
87 CitationsSource
#1Karen D. Holl (UCSC: University of California, Santa Cruz)H-Index: 43
#1Karen D. Holl (UCSC: University of California, Santa Cruz)H-Index: 20
Last. T.M. Aide (UPR-RP: University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras)H-Index: 1
view all 2 authors...
Given the extent of land use and land cover change by humans on a global scale, conservation efforts have increasingly focused on restoring degraded ecosystems to provide ecosystem services and biodiversity. Many examples in the tropics and elsewhere, however, show that some ecosystems recover rapidly without human intervention which begs the question of in which cases and to what extent humans should actively work to facilitate ecosystem recovery. We recommend that all land managers consider a ...
406 CitationsSource
#1Karel Prach (CAS: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)H-Index: 39
#2Lawrence R. Walker (UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)H-Index: 46
Lessons learned from the study of ecological succession have much to offer contemporary environmental problem solving but these lessons are being underutilized. As anthropogenic disturbances increase, succession is more relevant than ever. In this review, we suggest that succession is particularly suitable to address concerns about biodiversity loss, climate change, invasive species, and ecological restoration. By incorporating modern experimental techniques and linking results across environmen...
191 CitationsSource
#1Meelis Pärtel (UT: University of Tartu)H-Index: 50
#2Robert Szava-Kovats (UT: University of Tartu)H-Index: 14
Last. Martin Zobel (UT: University of Tartu)H-Index: 65
view all 3 authors...
Ecological theory and nature conservation have traditionally relied solely on observed local diversity. In this review, we recommend including those species that are absent from an ecosystem but which belong to its species pool; that is, all species in the region that can potentially inhabit those particular ecological conditions. We call the set of absent species ‘dark diversity'. Relating local and dark diversities enables biodiversity comparisons between regions, ecosystems and taxonomic grou...
178 CitationsSource
#1Lars A. Brudvig (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 30
The practice of ecological restoration is a primary option for increasing levels of biodiversity by modifying human-altered ecosystems. The scientifi c discipline of restoration ecology provides conceptual guidance and tests of restoration strategies, with the ultimate goal of predictive landscape restoration. I construct a conceptual model for restoration of biodiversity, based on sitelevel (e.g., biotic and abiotic) conditions, landscape (e.g, interpatch connectivity and patch geometry), and h...
174 CitationsSource
#1Neville D. Crossman (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 33
#2Brett A. Bryan (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 42
Last. D. A. CookeH-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Invasive plants pose a significant threat to the integrity and biodiversity of native systems. Weed risk assessment and management provides a framework for assessing this threat. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the threat posed to biodiversity by invasive plants in a rapidly changing climate. This paper aims to estimate the impacts of climate change on exotic plant habitats, and incorporates elements of dispersal to develop a management index for identifying invasive plant ...
68 CitationsSource
Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a s...
206 CitationsSource
Islands house a majority of the world's biodiversity and are thus critical for biodiversity conservation. Seabird nesting colonies provide nutrients that are integral to maintain island biodiversity and ecosystem function. Invasive rats destroy seabird colonies and thus the island ecosystems that depend on seabird-derived nutrients. After rat eradication, it is unclear how long ecosystem recovery may take, although some speculate on the order of centuries. I looked at ecosystem recovery along a ...
63 CitationsSource
#1F. B. Vincent Florens (University of La Réunion)H-Index: 16
#2John Mauremootoo (Mauritian Wildlife Foundation)H-Index: 4
Last. Cláudia BaiderH-Index: 21
view all 5 authors...
Invasive alien species pose one of the highest threats to biodiversity, especially in isolated oceanic islands where high rates of both endemism and extinction risk also usually prevail. Few studies have investigated the impact of invasive alien plants on butterflies in insular ecosystems, despite butterflies representing a key indicator group for terrestrial arthropod diversity. Using the Pollard Technique, we quantified butterfly species richness and abundance in eight wet lowland forest areas...
52 CitationsSource
Cited By521
Newest
#1Marie Ange Ngo Bieng (University of Montpellier)
#2Maïri Souza Oliveira (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza)
Last. Plinio Sist (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 6
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Tropical Secondary Forests (SFs) are vulnerable forest systems growing in areas that have been subject to unsustainable human activities leading to deforestation. SFs account for swathes of tropical forest landscapes that have lost their capacity to provide a high level of goods and services. They are also located in highly dynamic and human-pressured landscapes and are vulnerable to natural and human-induced catastrophic events, such as hurricanes or fires. Without appropriate silvicul...
Source
#1Cameron Egan (UH: University of Hawaii)H-Index: 6
#2Jerry H. Koko (UH: University of Hawaii)
Last. Nicole A. Hynson (UH: University of Hawaii)H-Index: 17
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Beneficial microbes such as plant mutualistic fungi, hold the promise of ameliorating challenges faced in native plant conservation such as disease management. As an alternative to costly chemical pest control, conservation efforts could potentially harness the benefits of plant mutualistic fungi to aid in defense and disease resistance, but there are few tests of this notion. We set out to test the efficacy of controlling a common foliar pathogen, the powdery mildew Neoerysiphe galeops...
Source
Source
#1Leonardo Campos (University of Antofagasta)H-Index: 6
#1Leonardo Campos Valdés (University of Antofagasta)
Last. Fabián A. Rodríguez-Zaragoza (University of Guadalajara)H-Index: 14
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Macroscopic ecosystem properties based on an Ascendency theoretical framework were assessed for mass-balance trophic models representing ecological systems constructed by the kelp species Macrocystis pyrifera planted on artificial reefs installed on subtidal barren rocky and sandy bottoms (Antofagasta Peninsula, Chile). Information on biomass, production, diet and consumption was needed. The magnitudes of relative Ascendency, relative Overhead and Redundancy values indicated that kelp p...
Source
#1Martha M. Gomez-Sapiens (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 5
#2Karen J. Schlatter (UF: University of Florida)
Last. Karl W. Flessa (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 35
view all 7 authors...
Source
#1Stephanie Mansourian (University of Geneva)H-Index: 11
#2Anne Sgard (University of Geneva)H-Index: 4
Abstract Faced with ongoing forest loss and degradation, the world’s decision-makers are turning to forest landscape restoration (FLR) as a solution to many land use challenges. At the same time, governance is being promoted as an important concept in relation to forests, landscapes, land use and increasingly, FLR. Yet, both terms – governance and FLR - are complex, and their association creates widely differing expectations. In this article, we analyse uses of the term’ governance’, and in part...
8 CitationsSource
#1Lin Wang (KIZ: Kunming Institute of Zoology)H-Index: 9
#2Guopeng Ren (Dali University)H-Index: 11
Last. Jianguo Zhu (KIZ: Kunming Institute of Zoology)H-Index: 10
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Numerous restoration programs have been launched worldwide in recent years, but the effectiveness of such programs for biodiversity conservation remains unclear. Additionally, priority areas of restoration need to be identified in a region where resources are limited. Habitat availability combines habitat amounts with interpatch connectivity, governing whether a landscape can shelter biological populations in the long term. Consequently, restoration efforts should focus on enhancing hab...
Source
#1Gretchen Walters (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 11
#2M. Baruah (USC: University of South Carolina)H-Index: 1
Last. E. Barrow (IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Restoration of degraded ecosystem functions and services is an important component of conservation and sustainable development because it allows people to improve human livelihoods by reviving important ecosystem services. For restoration to be achieved a variety of factors must be in place such as policies, laws, capacity and spaces in which to debate restoration decisions, amongst others. Restoration work is typically supported by restoration projects, requiring participants to decide...
1 CitationsSource
#1Jonas Josefsson (SLU: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)H-Index: 7
#2Lina Ahlbäck Widenfalk (SLU: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)H-Index: 5
Last. Erik Öckinger (SLU: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)H-Index: 26
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Biodiversity offsetting is becoming a principal instrument for managing biodiversity and ecosystem services in society. Still, it is unclear whether biodiversity offsetting can fully mitigate losses to natural values. When reviewing published studies on offsetting, we found only 40 evaluations with primary outcome data on biodiversity or ecosystem services. Among these, we found no evidence that biodiversity gains from offsets actually compensate for development-associated losses, becau...
Source
Source