Physical health disparities and mental illness: the scandal of premature mortality.

Published on Dec 1, 2011in British Journal of Psychiatry9.319
· DOI :10.1192/BJP.BP.111.092718
Graham Thornicroft124
Estimated H-index: 124
Sources
Abstract
A 20-year mortality gap for men, and 15 years for women, is still experienced by people with mental illness in high-income countries. The combination of lifestyle risk factors, higher rates of unnatural deaths and poorer physical healthcare contribute to this scandal of premature mortality that contravenes international conventions for the ‘right to health.’
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References11
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#2Jeanette WestmanH-Index: 16
Last. Thomas Munk LaursenH-Index: 44
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Background People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision. Aims To evaluate trends in health outcomes of people with serious mental disorders. Method We examined nationwide 5-year consecutive cohorts of people admitted to hospital for mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden in 1987–2006. In each country t...
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#1Louise M. Howard ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 73
#2Elizabeth Barley ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 22
Last. Graham Thornicroft ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 124
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Summary There has been increasing recognition of the high physical morbidity in patients with severe mental illness, but little has been written about cancer in these patients. Therefore, we review the published work on risk of cancer in patients with severe mental illness, treatment challenges, and ethical issues. Severe mental illness is associated with behaviours that predispose an individual to an increased risk of some cancers, including lung and breast cancer, although lower rates of other...
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#1Jari Tiihonen (HYKS: Helsinki University Central Hospital)H-Index: 90
#2Jouko Lönnqvist (HYKS: Helsinki University Central Hospital)H-Index: 122
Last. Jari HaukkaH-Index: 75
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Summary Background The introduction of second-generation antipsychotic drugs during the 1990s is widely believed to have adversely affected mortality of patients with schizophrenia. Our aim was to establish the long-term contribution of antipsychotic drugs to mortality in such patients. Methods Nationwide registers in Finland were used to compare the cause-specific mortality in 66 881 patients versus the total population (5·2 million) between 1996, and 2006, and to link these data with the use o...
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#1Graham Thornicroft ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 124
#2Elaine Brohan ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 24
Last. Morven Leese ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 76
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Summary Background Many people with schizophrenia experience stigma caused by other people's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour; this can lead to impoverishment, social marginalisation, and low quality of life. We aimed to describe the nature, direction, and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in 27 countries, in centres affiliated to the INDIGO Research Network, by use of face-to-face interviews w...
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#1Stefan Leucht (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 106
#2Tonja Burkard (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 2
Last. Norman SartoriusH-Index: 94
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Objective: The lifespan of people with schizophrenia is shortened compared to the general population. We reviewed the literature on comorbid physical diseases in schizophrenia to provide a basis for initiatives to fight this unacceptable situation. Method: We searched MEDLINE (1966 – May 2006) combining the MeSH term of schizophrenia with the 23 MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to identify relevant epidemiological studies. Results: A total of 44 202 abstracts were screened. Peop...
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#1Greer SullivanH-Index: 58
#2Xiaotong HanH-Index: 23
Last. Kathryn J. KotrlaH-Index: 3
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Objectives: This article describes differences in hospitalization for dia- betes among persons with diabetes who did or did not have co-occurring mental illness and who presented in the emergency department of a large county hospital located in the Southwest. Methods: Four and a half years of administrative data were used and consisted of all emergency visits for diabetes (N=4,275) made by persons with and without co-occurring men- tal disorders. The dependent variable was whether the emergency ...
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Background Physical health of people with schizophrenia is poor and they die early from cardiovascular disease. Aims To describe the lifestyle of people with schizophrenia through diet, smoking habits, weight and exercise, and to report risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Method Dietary habits of 102 community-dwelling people with schizophrenia were assessed by the Scottish Health Survey Questionnaire. Also assessed were smoking habits, physical activity biochemical indices of nutrition and fu...
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Background Physical health of people with schizophrenia is poor and they die early from cardiovascular disease. Aims To describe the lifestyle of people with schizophrenia through diet, smoking habits, weight and exercise, and to report risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Method Dietary habits of 102 community-dwelling people with schizophrenia were assessed by the Scottish Health Survey Questionnaire. Also assessed were smoking habits, physical activity, biochemical indices of nutrition and f...
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#1Hazel Inskip (University of Southampton)H-Index: 82
#2E C HarrisH-Index: 2
Last. Brian BarracloughH-Index: 8
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BACKGROUND The lifetime risks of suicide are generally quoted as 15% for affective disorder and alcoholism and 10% for schizophrenia, based on data from 1921-1975 and on calculations performed before computerised modelling techniques became available. This study recalculates the risk using contemporary data and modern techniques. METHOD Twenty-seven mortality studies provided data for affective disorder, 27 for alcohol dependence and 29 for schizophrenia. The proportion of the cohort who had die...
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Cited By351
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#1Julian Mutz ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 7
#2Allan H. Young (South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust)H-Index: 101
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Background null Individuals with bipolar disorder have a reduced life expectancy and may experience accelerated biological ageing. In individuals with bipolar disorder and healthy controls, we examined differences in age-related changes in physiology. null Methods null UK Biobank recruited more than 500,000 participants, aged 37-73, between 2006 and 2010. Generalised additive models were used to examine associations between age and grip strength, cardiovascular function, body composition, lung f...
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#1Jayati Das-Munshi ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 17
#2Chin-Kuo Chang (University of Taipei)H-Index: 27
Last. Matthew HotopfH-Index: 110
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BACKGROUND: Across international contexts, people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) experience marked reductions in life expectancy at birth. The intersection of ethnicity and social deprivation on life expectancy in SMI is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ethnicity and area-level deprivation on life expectancy at birth in SMI, defined as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders and depression, using data from London, UK. METHODS: Abridged life tables to ca...
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#1Rebekah Carney (University of Manchester)H-Index: 20
#2Joseph Firth (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 63
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#1Luigi Grassi (University of Ferrara)H-Index: 61
#2Elisa StivanelloH-Index: 12
Last. Michele SanzaH-Index: 2
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OBJECTIVE To examine cancer-related mortality in patients with severe mental disorders (SMI) in the Emilia Romagna (ER) Region, Northern Italy, during the period 2008-2017 and compare it with the regional population. METHODS We used the ER Regional Mental Health Registry identifying all patients aged ≥18 years who had received an ICD-9CM system diagnosis of SMI (i.e., schizophrenia or other functional psychosis, mania, or bipolar affective disorders) during a 10-year period (2008-2017). Informat...
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#1Frank L.J. VisserenH-Index: 66
#2François MachH-Index: 83
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#1Ida Nielsen Sølvhøj (University of Southern Denmark)H-Index: 2
#2Amalie Oxholm Kusier (University of Southern Denmark)H-Index: 3
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BACKGROUND Patients with mental disorders have an increased risk of developing somatic disorders, just as they have a higher risk of dying from them. These patients often report feeling devaluated and rejected by health professionals in the somatic health care system, and increasing evidence shows that disparities in health care provision contribute to poor health outcomes. The aim of this review was to map and synthesize literature on somatic health professionals' stigmatization toward patients...
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Last. Carolyn Chew-Graham (Keele University)H-Index: 65
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People with severe mental illness (SMI) have a life expectancy that is reduced by up to 20 years compared with the general population, and primary care has a key role in reducing this mortality gap.1 Providing primary care in the prison setting requires special consideration. People in prison have multiple complex health and social care needs.2 There are up to 80 000 people in prison in England and Wales at any one time, and imprisoned women make up around 5% of this population.3 Women in prison...
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#1John Nelson Opio (University of Adelaide)
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This systematic review was conducted to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among children and adults in Uganda. A comprehensive systematic search for relevant studies reporting prevalence of mental disorders in children or adults in Uganda was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science databases and grey literature sources. Study was eligible if, validated instrument based on the International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...
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#1Carolyn Chew-Graham (Keele University)H-Index: 65
#2Simon Gilbody (Ebor: University of York)H-Index: 82
Last. David Shiers (University of Manchester)H-Index: 19
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People with severe mental illness (SMI) face a future not only limited by stigmatising psychiatric illness, but also a life shortened by 15–20 years through physical comorbidities. Social and behavioural determinants help explain why many of these comorbidities cluster together. Moreover, the experience of multiple conditions, sometimes with conflicting management requirements and multiple healthcare providers, creates a disproportionate treatment burden accompanied by often poorer individual di...
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