Effects of Process Conditions on Desalting and Demetalization of Crude Oil

Published on Nov 22, 2006in Petroleum Science and Technology1.268
· DOI :10.1081/LFT-200056651
Xinru Xu6
Estimated H-index: 6
(ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology),
Jingyi Yang6
Estimated H-index: 6
(ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsJinsheng Gao9
Estimated H-index: 9
(ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract The efficiency of desalting for six crude oils was studied with a SY-1 dynamic simulation experimental installation. The demulsifier DC2 was examined for 1#, 2#, and 4# crude oil and DC4 was used for 3#, 5#, and 6# crude oil. The effects of temperature, electric field gradient, dosage of demulsifier, and washing water on the desalting efficiency of six crude oils were investigated. The results showed that at the optimization process condition after desalting, the desalting efficiency and the salt content of 1# crude oil reached 89.17% and 1.92 mg/L; that of 2# crude oil reached 85.08% and 1.04 mg/L; that of 3# crude oil reached 91.06% and 1.35 mg/L; that of 4# crude oil reached 81.67% and 1.51 mg/L; that of 5# crude oil reached 81.03% and 2.32 mg/L; and that of 6# crude oil reached 86.64% and 2.67 mg/L. Different crude oils have different metal contents. Three assistants, ammonium nitrate (TJ1), nitric acid (TJ3), and polyamine carboxylate (TJ4), were used to improve the efficiencies of desalting...
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
References5
Newest
#1Xinru Xu (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Jingyi Yang (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 6
Last. Jinshen Gao (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The desalting and dewatering of six crude oils with deferent properties have been studied. The contents of asphaltene and resin of #1, #2, and #4 crude oil are high; the demulsifiers with higher lipophilic values than others in the same series such as DA2, DB2, and DC2 can be easily absorbed on the interface of a water–oil emulsion and reveal better dewatering and desalting efficiency. The carbon atom number of alkyl on phenol core in nonyl-alkylphenol formaldehyde resin, which is the i...
Source
ABSTRACT The main objective of this paper is lo emphasize the efficiency of synthesized polyo.xyalkylenated amines (PPPEA) having different hydiophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values in breaking synthetic water-iu-benzene emulsions stabilized by both pelroleum asphaltenes and clay (EAC). It was found that the presence of clay and asphaltenes in a certain ratio (1:1 summing 0 5 wt / vol. % with respect to the total emulsion volume ) offers maximum emulsion stability. This was attributed to the e...
Source
The search for the appropriate demulsifier for a water-in-crude oil emulsion is generally carried out through the well-known “bottle test” technique. A comprehensive approach is proposed here, which is based on earlier work on the rate of separation of surfactant−water−hydrocarbon mixtures, where it was found that “optimal” type III systems, in Winsor's nomenclature, exhibits the fastest separation rate. It is shown that the rules developed for microemulsion optimization apply to the selection o...
Source
#1Joseph D. McLean (NCSU: North Carolina State University)H-Index: 5
#2Peter K. Kilpatrick (NCSU: North Carolina State University)H-Index: 35
Abstract The formation of stable and persistent emulsions and foams in the production and refining of crude petroleum is a challenge which has defied broad and generic resolution for several decades. Rational and systematic approaches to demulsification have been slow to develop due to a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular origins of emulsion stabilization and the full range of factors which govern emulsion stability. Several studies have shown the importance of resins and asphalt...
Source
#1R.A. Mohammed (Imperial College London)H-Index: 5
#2A.I. Bailey (Imperial College London)H-Index: 16
Last. S.E. TaylorH-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
The importance of the interfacial rheology in determining the stability of water-in-Buchan crude oil emulsions has been demonstrated in part 1 of this series of papers (R.A. Mohammed, A.I. Bailey, P.F. Luckham and S.E. Taylor, Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 80(1993)223). In part 2, interfacial tensions of crude oil, and solutions of asphaltenes and resins in a model oil have been investigated. Surface pressure vs. area (Π—A) curves of monolayers of asphaltenes, resins and their ...
Source
Cited By13
Newest
#1Ali Khajehesamedini (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 2
#2DĂ©bora Micheline Vaz de Miranda (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 2
Last. José Carlos Pinto (UFRJ: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 43
view all 5 authors...
An experimental and theoretical study was performed to analyze the evolution of droplet size distribution and phase separation in water-in-oil emulsions under the effect of the electric field in a batch vessel. The effects of electrostatic time, initial water content, and electrical potential on the efficiency of separation were studied in the experiments. Moreover, a mathematical model based on population, mass and momentum balance equations for disperse, oil and free phases was developed to in...
Source
Certain inorganic metallic elements are naturally occurring in crude oils. Some are present in the form of inorganic salts and others as organometallic complexes and salts. Most of the time, the former can be easily removed by desalting in the front end of the refining process. The latter represent trouble when present in the crude. In this group, the most abundant elements are nickel and vanadium, and iron to a lesser extent. Heavy and extraheavy oils and bitumen are the major carriers of these...
Source
#1Anton A. GabrienkoH-Index: 22
#2Oleg N. MartyanovH-Index: 20
Last. Sergei G. KazarianH-Index: 67
view all 3 authors...
Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic imaging approach has been applied in situ to investigate the behavior of crude oil blends at different conditions. The ratio between mixed crude oils and temperature has been varied to study how these factors influence the stability of the blends. Obtained spectroscopic results have been used to correlate the composition of the blends with respect to the incompatibility of crude oils. The chemical compositions of pre...
Source
#1C. Ken Chanthamontri (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 1
#2Andrew Stopford (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 2
Last. Stephen R. Larter (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 4
view all 5 authors...
The presence of dissolved metal ions in waters associated with crude oils has many negative implications for the transport, processing, and refining of petroleum. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis of sodium containing crude oil samples suffers from ionization suppression, unwanted adduct formation, and an increase in the complexity of data analysis. Here, we describe a method for the reduction/elimination of these adverse effects by modification of the source region gas-inlet system of a ...
Source
#1H. Kaur (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 1
#2P. EatonH-Index: 1
Last. Murray R. Gray (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 65
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Chloride salts in heavy oils can cause significant corrosion and fouling of refinery equipment, because desalting is not completely effective. The kinetics of the reaction of chloride salts with steam in diluted bitumen at 250°C was affected by reaction and diffusion in the solid salt particles. Four inhibitors based on alkaline–earth compounds were effective in reducing the initial rate of hydrolysis, thereby offering potential protection to refinery equipment. Chlorides were retained ...
Source
The modern petroleum industry is confronting many challenges throughout the chain value, since the production and refining of crude oil to the manufacture of high-value petrochemical products. Conventional light and middle crude oil production reached a maximum and tends to decline. Also, some producing countries are dealing with heaviest and higher content of pollutants (sulfur, nitrogen and metals) crude oils, which are being produced in countries like Canada, China, Mexico, Venezuela and the ...
Source
#2Fabiane G. AntesH-Index: 19
Last. Erico M.M. FloresH-Index: 57
view all 9 authors...
A procedure for salt extraction of heavy crude oil emulsions (API lower than 14°) was performed using microwave radiation. Emulsion was transferred to high-pressure quartz vessels with further water addition. Microwave radiation was applied for 60 min, and after separation of phases, chloride determination was performed in the water phase by ion chromatography (IC). The sampling procedure, heating time (10−40 min), microwave power (500−800 W), and the number of extractions (1−5) were evaluated. ...
Source
#1X.-g. Yang (TJU: Tianjin University)H-Index: 1
#2W. Tan (TJU: Tianjin University)H-Index: 1
Last. X.-f. Tan (TJU: Tianjin University)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Lots of water and surfactants are poured into the oil well to enhance the exploiting efficiency, so the crude-oil emulsions exploited by this technology contain much water, which is very hard to be separated at present. The demulsifying and separating experiments of the crude-oil emulsion were conducted by using the thermal chemical method and the ultrasonic chemical method separately. The crude oil emulsion samples were provided by the Dagang oil field of China and the water content wa...
Source
#1Murray R. Gray (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 65
#2P. E. EatonH-Index: 2
Last. T. Le (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Chloride salts are difficult to remove from heavy crude oils and bitumens. In the presence of steam, the chloride salts form hydrochloric acid, causing significant corrosion in the downstream equipment. The rate and the extent of the hydrolysis reactions for magnesium, calcium, and sodium chloride salts were measured by contacting with flowing steam at 100°C to 350°C. The extent of hydrolysis was controlled by salt cations and by the external particle area. The non-volatile products of ...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.