Prevalence and risk factors for common vision problems in children: data from the ALSPAC study.

Published on Jul 1, 2008in British Journal of Ophthalmology3.611
· DOI :10.1136/BJO.2007.134700
Cathy Williams30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Kate Northstone64
Estimated H-index: 64
+ 3 AuthorsJohn M Sparrow20
Estimated H-index: 20
Sources
Abstract
Objective: To estimate the distribution and predictors of some common visual problems (strabismus, amblyopia, hypermetropia) within a population-based cohort of children at the age of 7 years. Methods: Children participating in a birth cohort study were examined by orthoptists who carried out cover/uncover, alternate cover, visual acuity and non-cycloplegic refraction tests. Prospectively collected data on potential risk factors were available from the study. Results: Data were available for 7825 seven-year-old children. 2.3% (95% CI 2.0% to 2.7%) had manifest strabismus, 3.6% (95% CI 3.3% to 4.1%) had past/present amblyopia, and 4.8% (95% CI 4.4% to 5.3%) were hypermetropic. Children from the lowest occupational social class background were 1.82 (95% CI 1.03% to 3.23%) times more likely to be hypermetropic than children from the highest social class. Amblyopia (p = 0.089) and convergent strabismus (p = 0.066) also tended to increase as social class decreased. Conclusions: Although strabismus has decreased in the UK, it and amblyopia remain common problems. Children from less advantaged backgrounds were more at risk of hypermetropia and to a lesser extent of amblyopia and convergent strabismus. Children’s eye-care services may need to take account of this socio-economic gradient in prevalence to avoid inequity in access to care.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
276 Citations
109 Citations
138 Citations
References26
Newest
#1Cathy WilliamsH-Index: 30
#2Laura L. MillerH-Index: 22
Last. John M SparrowH-Index: 20
view all 4 authors...
We were interested to read the paper by Fotouhi and colleagues, on the prevalence of refractive errors in schoolchildren in Iran,1 in which the authors used cycloplegic autorefraction for children aged 7–15 years and non-cycloplegic autorefraction for children aged 15–18 years. This paper illustrates the well-recognised need for cycloplegia in order to obtain accurate refractive estimates in children up to at least age 12.2 However, the use of cycloplegia may reduce compliance and may not be pos...
33 CitationsSource
Health is a universal human aspiration and a basic human need. The development of society, rich or poor, can be judged by the quality of its population’s health, how fairly health is distributed across the social spectrum, and the degree of protection provided from disadvantage due to ill-health. Health equity is central to this premise and to the work of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Strengthening health equity—globally and within countries—means going beyond contemporary con...
623 CitationsSource
#1Dana Robaei (Millennium Institute)H-Index: 23
#2Annette Kifley (Millennium Institute)H-Index: 39
Last. Paul Mitchell (Millennium Institute)H-Index: 163
view all 3 authors...
Purpose To describe the prevalence of strabismus and factors associated with its diagnosis in a representative sample of older Australian children. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Methods A representative stratified random cluster sample of 2353 children (aged 12 years) attending 21 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia was examined in 2004 to 2005 (response 75.3%). Cover testing was performed at near (30 cm) and distance (6 m); cycloplegic autorefraction, visual acuity, and ste...
36 CitationsSource
#1Richard A. Stone (Scheie Eye Institute)H-Index: 61
#2Lorri B. Wilson (Scheie Eye Institute)H-Index: 9
Last. Graham E. Quinn (Scheie Eye Institute)H-Index: 69
view all 8 authors...
PURPOSE. Motivated by pharmacologic findings linking nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to eye development in chicks, the authors studied whether the refractions of children who were passively exposed to cigarette smoke by their parents differed from those of nonexposed children. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 patients (mean SD age, 8.7 4.4 years; range, 1‐20) in a tertiary care pediatric ophthalmology clinic. Half (162/323) of the subjects had strabismus. The accompanyi...
53 CitationsSource
#1Dana Robaei (Westmead Hospital)H-Index: 23
#2Kathryn A. RoseH-Index: 47
Last. Paul MitchellH-Index: 163
view all 6 authors...
Objectives To describe the prevalence of amblyopia and associated factors in a representative sample of 6-year-old Australian children. Methods Logarithm of minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA) was measured in both eyes before and after pinhole correction, correcting cylindrical refractive components greater than 0.50 diopter (D), and with spectacles (if worn) in a population-based sample of 1741 schoolchildren. Retinal pathological abnormalities were excluded based on photographs. Amb...
109 CitationsSource
#1Dana RobaeiH-Index: 23
#2Annette KifleyH-Index: 39
Last. Paul MitchellH-Index: 163
view all 4 authors...
Results: A modest low birth weight increased the risk of amblyopia (relative risk [RR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-12.0), strabismus (RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5-9.1), and anisometropia (RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.2-11.1), together with an increased risk of uncorrected visual acuity in the lowest quartile (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2). Modest prematurity increased the risk of amblyopia (RR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.9-10.6), strabismus (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.0), and uncorrected visual acuity in the lowest quart...
53 CitationsSource
#1Janette Atkinson (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 66
#2Marko Nardini (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 24
Last. S Rae (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
We have previously reported that significant hyperopia at 9 months predicts mild deficits on vistiocognitive and visuomotor measures between 2 years and 5 years 6 months. Here we compare the motor skills of children who had been hyperopic in infancy (hyperopic group) with those who had been emmetropic (control group), using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). Children were tested at 3 years 6 months (hyperopic group: 47 males, 63 females, mean age 3y 7mo, SD 1.6mo; contr...
31 CitationsSource
#1Ursula M. DonnellyH-Index: 2
#2Nuala M. StewartH-Index: 1
Last. Mina HollingerH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Purpose: This population-based study examines the prevalence of childhood visual disorders: amblyopia (strabismus, refractive errors) and organic disease. It also assesses treatment outcomes, visual impairment and residual amblyopia. Methods: 1582 children were retrospectively analysed on treatment completion (age 8-9 years). Significant visual disorders included: esotropia, exotropia, anisometropia (hyperopia ≥1.50DS, astigmatism ≥1.00DC, myopia ≥1.50DS), ametropia (hyperopia ≥1.50DS, astigmati...
83 CitationsSource
#1Sean P. Donahue (VUMC: Vanderbilt University Medical Center)H-Index: 44
Abstract Introduction Legislation to require formal eye examination prior to school entry is being considered in several states and is supported by optical trade organizations. Pediatric ophthalmologists cite anecdotal cases that suggest children receive spectacles unnecessarily, but data to support this are lacking. Methods Eye examination results from children referred to local eye doctors following a statewide preschool photoscreening program were reviewed to determine how often glasses were ...
38 CitationsSource
#1Sherry L. Fawcett (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 16
#2Eileen E. Birch (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 83
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with abnormal binocular vision outcomes among children with accommodative esotropia (ET) whose eyes were successfully realigned with spectacles only or with spectacles and surgery. Methods The participants were 69 children with accommodative ET who were followed up prospectively from the time of diagnosis. Clinical factors examined in this study included high accommodative convergence–to–accommodation (AC/A) r...
49 CitationsSource
Cited By189
Newest
#1Itay Nitzan (Medical Corps)
#2Maxim Bez (Medical Corps)H-Index: 10
Last. Hagai Levine (HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)H-Index: 18
view all 7 authors...
BACKGROUND Amblyopia, when not diagnosed at appropriate age, leads to uncorrectable visual impairment with considerable social and financial implications. The aim of this study was to assess socio-demographic disparities in amblyopia prevalence among Israeli adolescents, in order to identify susceptible groups in the population. METHODS A nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study of Israeli adolescents examined between 1993 and 2017. All study participants underwent visual acuity exami...
Source
#1Eileen E. Birch (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 83
#2Krista R. Kelly (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 4
Last. Jingyun Wang (SUNY: State University of New York System)
view all 3 authors...
Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual impairment in children, with a prevalence of 2-3%. Not only is visual acuity reduced in one eye but binocular vision is affected, fellow eye deficits may be present, eye-hand coordination and reading can be affected, and self-perception may be diminished. New technologies for preschool vision screening hold promise for accessible, early, and accurate detection of amblyopia. Together with recent advances in our theoretical understanding of am...
Source
#1Michelline Joana Tenório Albuquerque Madruga Mesquita (UFMA: Federal University of Maranhão)
#2Thales Levi Azevedo Valente (PUC-Rio: Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro)H-Index: 5
Last. Alcione Miranda dos Santos (UFMA: Federal University of Maranhão)H-Index: 16
view all 6 authors...
Abstract null null Background and Objective null Amblyopia is a public health problem, and strabismus is its primary cause. Our objective is to evaluate the concordance of the diagnosis of strabismus between strabismus expert ophthalmologist and the mhealth application developed for this purpose. null null null Methods null We evaluated the concordance of the diagnosis of strabismus between the expert ophthalmologist and the mhealth application by screening two hundred twenty-four children and a...
Source
#1Stacy L. Pineles (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 22
#2Michael X. Repka (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 67
Last. Anne L. Coleman (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 62
view all 7 authors...
PURPOSE To define the prevalence of medical eye disease diagnoses among children enrolled in commercial insurance plans in the United States and to evaluate differences among groups based on the US census region, race/ethnicity, and familial net worth. METHODS : Retrospective study of de-identified claims data from the OptumLab® Data Warehouse (OLDW) between 2007 and 2018. All children ( $500,000 household net worth groups, p > .001). CONCLUSION : Diagnosis of significant eye diseases is relativ...
Source
#1Jennifer Chiem (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 2
Last. Daniel K. Low (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 10
view all 0 authors...
Source
#1Sagnik Sen (AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 6
#2Pallavi Singh (AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Rohit Saxena (AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 30
view all 3 authors...
Amblyopia is a cause of significant ocular morbidity in pediatric population and may lead to visual impairment in future life. It is caused due to formed visual deprivation or abnormal binocular interactions. Several risk factors in pediatric age group may lead to this disease. Author groups have tried managing different types of amblyopia, like anisometropic amblyopia, strabismic amblyopia and combined mechanism amblyopia, with optical correction, occlusion therapy, penalization, binocular ther...
Source
#1Lynne Lohfeld ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)H-Index: 27
#2Graham CH-Index: 1
Last. Ving Fai Chan ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)H-Index: 5
view all 5 authors...
Study objectives: to identify reasons for non-adherence to referrals for follow-up eye care after children fail a school vision screening test. null null null null null Methods: Ten focus groups were held with parents or guardians (parents) of children who had not adhered to the referral for further care in Cross River State, Nigeria, in 2019. Data from verbatim transcripts were analysed deductively using topics from the interview guide plus OTHER to capture unanticipated results. Analysts follo...
1 CitationsSource
#1Brian G. Mohney (Mayo Clinic)H-Index: 31
#2Laura Lepor (Mayo Clinic)
Last. David O. Hodge (Mayo Clinic)H-Index: 104
view all 3 authors...
PURPOSE To report the prevalence of subclinical markers of strabismus from a community-based screening of children. METHODS A family history and ophthalmic examination (including six markers of strabismus: oblique muscle dysfunction, stereopsis <60 arcsec, monofixation, nasal-temporal pursuit asymmetry, dissociated strabismus, and anisometropia) were obtained from consecutive children, aged 5-18 years, in the local school system and the pediatric outpatient clinic of Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn...
Source
#1Arvind Chandna (Smith-Kettlewell Institute)H-Index: 1
#2Jeremy Badler (MPG: Max Planck Society)
Last. Stephen J. Heinen (Smith-Kettlewell Institute)H-Index: 19
view all 5 authors...
To clearly view approaching objects, the eyes rotate inward (vergence), and the intraocular lenses focus (accommodation). Current ocular control models assume both eyes are driven by unitary vergence and unitary accommodation commands that causally interact. The models typically describe discrete gaze shifts to non-accommodative targets performed under laboratory conditions. We probe these unitary signals using a physical stimulus moving in depth on the midline while recording vergence and accom...
Source
#1Avi M. Aizenman (Vision-Sciences, Inc.)H-Index: 3
#2Dennis M. Levi (Vision-Sciences, Inc.)H-Index: 82
People with amblyopia have been shown to have decreased fixational stability, particularly those with strabismic amblyopia. Fixational stability and visual acuity have been shown to be tightly correlated across multiple studies, suggesting a relationship between acuity and oculomotor stability. Reduced visual acuity is the sine qua non of amblyopia, and recovery is measured by the improvement in visual acuity. Here we ask whether fixational stability can be used as an objective marker for the re...
Source