Hairless Guinea Pig Bioassay Model for Vesicant Vapor Exposures

Published on Oct 1, 1990in Toxicological Sciences3.703
· DOI :10.1016/0272-0590(90)90046-M
Millard M. Mershon6
Estimated H-index: 6
Larry W. Mitcheltree12
Estimated H-index: 12
+ 2 AuthorsJohn V. Wade4
Estimated H-index: 4
Abstract Sulfur mustard (HD; 1,1′-thiobis[2-chloroethane]) induces fluid-filled blisters in man but not in conventional laboratory animals. An animal model is needed to emulate both cytotoxic (vesicant) and vascular (irritant) responses of human skin to HD exposures. An acceptable model must permit reproducible comparisons of uniformly graded and dose-related HD control responses with reduced responses that may follow antivesicant treatments. Hairless guinea pigs were evaluated by exposing six or eight dorsal skin sites 12 mm in diameter to similar HD vapor concentrations for graded intervals (1–16 min). HD vapor was delivered under occlusive caps holding 10 μl of HD in filter paper located 5 mm above the skin. Four-minute exposures induced moderate erythema, slight edema, and microblisters in 1 of 39 sites. Eight-minute exposures induced severe erythema, moderate edema, and microblisters in 31 of 40 sites. Gross blistering was not seen after use of vapor cups, but damage to basal cells resembled lesions of vesicant injury in man. The hairless guinea pig model, with graded HD vapor exposures, provides acceptable comparisons of responses. Exposures of both 4- and 8-min durations were used to show the feasibility of using this model to bioassay antivesicant topical protectants. These methods may be useful for measurements of irritant and cytotoxic responses of skin to other toxic vapors.
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