Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.

Published on Sep 1, 2002in American Psychologist10.885
· DOI :10.1037//0003-066X.57.9.705
Edwin A. Locke113
Estimated H-index: 113
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park),
Gary P. Latham95
Estimated H-index: 95
(U of T: University of Toronto)
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Abstract
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory's limitations.
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