Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
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#1Juliana Schroeder (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 12
#2Donald Lyons (U of C: University of Chicago)
Last. Nicholas Epley (U of C: University of Chicago)H-Index: 58
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Connecting with others makes people happier, but strangers in close proximity often ignore each other. Prior research (Epley & Schroeder, 2014) suggested this social disconnection stems from people misunderstanding how pleasant it would be to talk with strangers. Extending these prior results, in a field experiment with London-area train commuters, those assigned to talk with a stranger reported having a significantly more positive experience, and learning significantly more, than those assigned...
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Visual spatial attention is typically thought to have a facilitatory effect on processing that monotonically decreases with the distance from the center of attention (Posner, 1980). Some studies suggest that the distribution of attention across space is nonmonotonic, with suppression around the target object (Cutzu & Tsotsos, 2003; Muller et al., 2005). We show in two flanker-task experiments that discrepancies in past work can be unified by a surround inhibition account in which the shape of th...
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#1Julian Quandt (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 3
#2Bernd Figner (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 18
Last. Harm Veling (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 23
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Evaluations and value-based decisions are often accompanied by a feeling of confidence about whether or not the evaluation or decision is accurate. We argue that this feeling of confidence reflects the variation of an underlying value distribution and that this value distribution represents previously experienced values related to an object. Two preregistered experiments in which the variation of such value distributions was systematically varied provide causal evidence in favor of this hypothes...
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We show that the intention to remember information substantially improves recall of that information when maintained in working memory (WM), whereas it does not have the same effect on maintenance in episodic long-term memory (LTM). In eight experiments, participants processed lists of words according to a semantic orienting task in three instruction conditions: to remember, to forget, or an incidental-memory baseline with no instruction. The first two experiments showed better memory for intent...
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Children face a difficult task in learning how to reason about other people's emotions. How intensely facial configurations are displayed can vary not only according to what and how much emotion people are experiencing, but also across individuals based on differences in personality, gender, and culture. To navigate these sources of variability, children may use statistical information about other's facial cues to make interpretations about perceived emotions in others. We examined this possibil...
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Females tend to be more anxious than males while engaging in mathematics, which has been linked to lower math performance and higher math avoidance. A possible repercussion of this gender difference is the underrepresentation of females in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and math), as math competencies are an essential part of succeeding in such fields. A related, but distinct, area of research suggests that males tend to outperform females in tasks that require spatial processing...
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#1Ting Yun Chang (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 4
#2Isabel Gauthier (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 65
When seeing groups of objects, various features can be extracted to form an ensemble representation, including low-level features such as orientation and higher-level features like facial expression. Past research proposed distinct abilities for ensemble coding of high-level versus low-level visual features, but the only complex objects used were faces. Here, we examine evidence for a shared ability supporting ensemble representations for complex objects from different object categories. In 2 ex...
1 CitationsSource
#1Mackenzie A. Sunday (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 7
#2Andrew J. Tomarken (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 30
Last. Isabel Gauthier (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 65
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There is recent evidence for a domain-general object recognition ability, called O, which is distinct from general intelligence and other cognitive and personality constructs. We extend the study of O by characterizing how it generalizes to the ability to recognize familiar objects and to the ability to make judgments of the average identity of ensembles of objects. We applied latent variable modeling to data collected from a sample of adults (N = 284) in three different tasks and for six differ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Anne-Marie Nader (Université du Québec)H-Index: 2
#2Domenico Tullo (McGill University)H-Index: 2
Last. Isabelle Soulières (Université du Québec)H-Index: 21
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Autism is diagnosed according to atypical social-communication and repetitive behaviors. However, autistic individuals are also distinctive in the high variability of specific abilities such as learning. Having been characterized as experiencing great difficulty with learning, autistics have also been reported to learn spontaneously in exceptional ways. These contrasting accounts suggest that some situations may be better than others for learning in autism. We tested this possibility using a pro...
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#1Yoel InbarH-Index: 27
#2Ellen Evers (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 6
Comparisons can often be framed in different but equivalent ways. For example, "A is better than B," can also be expressed as "B is worse than A." In 7 studies (and 4 further studies in the Supplemental Materials available in the OSF) we find that logically equivalent comparison frames have divergent effects on judgments and choices for the items being compared as well as other members of the set from which those items were drawn. These effects are asymmetric, affecting inferior items more stron...
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