Wesley W. Holmes
United States Department of the Army
AirwaySurgeryRespiratory distressPathologyMolecular biologyReceptorChemistryApoptosisImmunologyIn vivoInhalationDermisLungPhosphineBronchoalveolar lavageDimethyl sulfoxidePhosgeneGuinea pigHairlessRespiratory tractInhalation exposureSulfur mustardAprotininDrug vehicleInhalation injuryPyknosisToxicityLung injuryPoison controlPapillary dermisAnesthesiaCancer researchNecrosisRespiratory systemMedicinePulmonary function testingBiologyPharmacologyCaspase
Publications 30
#1Matthew Hartog (DA: United States Department of the Army)H-Index: 1
#1Matthew HartogH-Index: 4
Last. Heidi Hoard-FrucheyH-Index: 4
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#1Lily ThompsonH-Index: 1
#2Matthew Hartog (DA: United States Department of the Army)H-Index: 1
Last. Heidi Hoard-FrucheyH-Index: 4
view all 7 authors...
Inhalation of powerful chemical agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM), can have debilitating pulmonary consequences, such as bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and parenchymal fibrosis (PF). The underlyin...
13 CitationsSource
#1Matthew D. McGraw (University of Colorado Denver)H-Index: 6
#2Christopher M. Osborne (BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)H-Index: 1
Last. Livia A. Veress (University of Colorado Denver)H-Index: 12
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: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent. When inhaled, SM causes significant injury to the respiratory tract. Although the mechanism involved in acute airway injury after SM inhalation has been well described previously, the mechanism of SM's contribution to distal lung vascular injury is not well understood. We hypothesized that acute inhalation of vaporized SM causes activated systemic coagulation with subsequent pulmonary vascular thrombi formation after SM inhalation exposure. Spra...
6 CitationsSource
#1Cameron S. McElroy (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 3
#2Elysia MinH-Index: 14
Last. Brian J. Day (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 70
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: Sulfur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, SM) is a powerful bi-functional vesicating chemical warfare agent. SM tissue injury is partially mediated by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that using a catalytic antioxidant (AEOL 10150) to alleviate oxidative stress and secondary inflammation following exposure to SM would attenuate the toxic effects of SM inhalation. Adult male rats were intubated and exposed to SM (1.4 mg/kg), a d...
8 CitationsSource
#1Devon AndresH-Index: 5
#2Brian KeyserH-Index: 13
Last. Radharaman RayH-Index: 20
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Abstract Phosgene (CG), a toxic inhalation and industrial hazard, causes bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction and associated pathological effects that could be life threatening. Ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family have been identified to act as specific chemosensory molecules in the respiratory tract in the detection, control of adaptive responses and initiation of detrimental signaling cascades upon exposure to various toxic inhalation hazards (TIH); their activation ...
13 CitationsSource
#1Wesley W. HolmesH-Index: 11
#2Brian KeyserH-Index: 13
Last. Dana R. AndersonH-Index: 25
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Abstract Toxic industrial chemicals are used throughout the world to produce everyday products such as household and commercial cleaners, disinfectants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plastics, paper, and fertilizers. These chemicals are produced, stored, and transported in large quantities, which poses a threat to the local civilian population in cases of accidental or intentional release. Several of these chemicals have no known medical countermeasures for their toxic effects. Phosgene is a high...
38 CitationsSource
#1Livia A. Veress (University of Colorado Denver)H-Index: 12
#2Dana R. Anderson (University of Colorado Denver)H-Index: 1
Last. Carl W. White (University of Colorado Denver)H-Index: 64
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Rationale: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon stockpiled today in volatile regions of the world. SM inhalation causes a life-threatening airway injury characterized by airway obstruction from fibrin casts, that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is >80%. No therapy exists to prevent mortality after SM exposure. Our previous work using the less toxic analog of SM, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, identified tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) an ef...
26 CitationsSource
#1Brian KeyserH-Index: 13
#2Devon AndresH-Index: 5
Last. Radharaman RayH-Index: 20
view all 12 authors...
Mustard gas (sulfur mustard [SM], bis-[2-chloroethyl] sulfide) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent and a potential chemical terrorism agent. Exposure of SM causes debilitating skin blisters (vesication) and injury to the eyes and the respiratory tract; of these, the respiratory injury, if severe, may even be fatal. Therefore, developing an effective therapeutic strategy to protect against SM-induced respiratory injury is an urgent priority of not only the US military but also the civilian ant...
19 CitationsSource