Deformation and fracture behavior of a laser powder bed fusion processed stainless steel: In situ synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography study

Published on Apr 1, 2021in Additive manufacturing7.002
· DOI :10.1016/J.ADDMA.2021.101914
Hahn Choo47
Estimated H-index: 47
(UT: University of Tennessee),
Logan P. White1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UT: University of Tennessee)
+ 3 AuthorsE. Garlea8
Estimated H-index: 8
(ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
Source
Abstract
Abstract Tensile plastic deformation and fracture behavior of a laser powder bed fusion processed 316 L stainless steel alloy was investigated in situ using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography (sXCT). Three different cases were studied: (1) specimen A1, near full-density with initial porosity of 0.04%, (2) specimen B1, initial lack-of-fusion (LOF) porosity of about 3% with the major axis of defects aligned nearly perpendicular to the tensile loading direction (LD), and (3) specimen B, similar to B1 but with the major axis of LOF defects aligned nearly parallel to LD. The effects of type, density, and orientation of defects in as-printed samples on plastic deformation and failure modes were studied by analyzing sXCT image sequences and quantitative defect properties. Specifically, the evolutions of porosity, size, aspect ratio, and angle of gas pores and LOF defects were characterized as a function of applied strain. Moreover, interactions between as-printed defects and deformation-induced crack propagation were investigated. The tensile behavior of specimen A1 was comparable to that of a commercial wrought plate. The quantitative in-situ sXCT results showed a void-growth phenomenon in A1 but without noticeable coalescence, resulting in a ductile cup-cone failure. Specimen B1 showed damage-driven brittle failure with limited plasticity due to early and rapid propagation of open voids. On the other hand, specimen B, with a similar amount of LOF defects as B1, showed deceivingly strong and ductile tensile behavior similar to A1 without any major crack propagations due to the favorable orientation relationship between LOF defects and the LD.
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