Relationships among microbial indicators of fecal pollution, microbial source tracking markers, and pathogens in Costa Rican coastal waters.

Published on Jan 1, 2021in Water Research9.13
· DOI :10.1016/J.WATRES.2020.116507
Adriana González-Fernández1
Estimated H-index: 1
(USF: University of South Florida),
Erin M. Symonds15
Estimated H-index: 15
(USF: University of South Florida)
+ 10 AuthorsValerie J. Harwood48
Estimated H-index: 48
(USF: University of South Florida)
Abstract Tropical coastal waters are understudied, despite their ecological and economic importance. They also reflect projected climate change scenarios, e.g., increased rainfall and water temperatures. We conducted an exploratory microbial water quality study at a tropical beach influenced by sewage-contaminated rivers, and tested the hypothesis that fecal microorganisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, somatic and male-specific coliphages, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), Bacteroides HF183, norovirus genogroup I (NoVGI), Salmonella, Cryptosporidium and Giardia) would vary by season and tidal stage. The environmental variable that best predicted microbial concentrations in a multivariate analysis was rainfall. Most microorganisms’ concentrations were greater in the rainy season; however, NoVGI was only detected in the dry season and Cryptosporidium was the only pathogen most frequently detected in rainy season. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) levels exceeded recreational water quality criteria standards in >85% of river samples and in 89% of ocean samples. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Salmonella, and NoVGI were frequently detected in rivers (39%, 39%, 26%, and 39% of samples, respectively), but infrequently in ocean water, particularly during the dry season. Multivariate analysis showed that C. perfringens, somatic coliphage, male-specific coliphage, and PMMoV were the subset of indicators that maximized the correlation of indicators with pathogens in the rivers. In the ocean, the best subset of indicators was enterococci, male-specific coliphage, and PMMoV. The seasonal interplay of rainfall and pathogen prevalence undoubtedly influences beach users’ health risks. Relationships are likely to be complex, with some risk factors increasing and others decreasing each season. Future use of multivariate approaches to better understand linkages among environmental conditions, microbial predictors (fecal indicators and MST markers) and pathogens will improve prediction of high-risk scenarios at recreational beaches.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
44 Citations
13 Citations
7 Citations
#1Luz Chacón (UCR: University of Costa Rica)H-Index: 2
#2Kenia Barrantes (UCR: University of Costa Rica)H-Index: 5
Last. Rosario Achí (UCR: University of Costa Rica)H-Index: 4
view all 9 authors...
Effective wastewater management is crucial to ensure the safety of water reuse projects and effluent discharge into surface waters. Multiple studies have demonstrated that municipal wastewater treatment with conventional activated sludge processes is inefficient for the removal of the wide spectrum of viruses in sewage. In this study, a well-accepted statistical approach was used to investigate the relationship between viral indicators and human enteric viruses during wastewater treatment in a r...
3 CitationsSource
#1Marc P. Verhougstraete (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 8
#2Kristen Pogreba-Brown (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 7
Last. Joseph N. S. Eisenberg (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 44
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Recreational water epidemiology studies are rare in settings with minimal wastewater treatment where risk may be highest, and in tropical settings where warmer temperature influences the ecology of fecal indicator bacteria commonly used to monitor recreational waters. One exception is a 1999 study conducted in Sao Paulo Brazil. We compared the risk and exposure characteristics of these data with those conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) in the early 1990s that are the basis of the Worl...
4 CitationsSource
#1Qian Zhang (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 11
#2Javier Gallard (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 2
Last. Warish Ahmed (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 44
view all 7 authors...
Abstract The use of microbial source tracking (MST) marker genes has grown in recent years due to the need to attribute point and non-point fecal contamination to specific sources. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a modeling approach used to estimate health risks from exposure to feces-contaminated water and associated pathogens. A combination of these approaches [quantitative MST (qMST) and QMRA] can provide additional pathogen-related information for prioritizing and addressing...
21 CitationsSource
#1Katherine Crank (ND: University of Notre Dame)H-Index: 5
#2Sarah Petersen (ND: University of Notre Dame)H-Index: 1
Last. Kyle Bibby (ND: University of Notre Dame)H-Index: 39
view all 3 authors...
Fecal indicator bacteria currently employed for microbial water quality management are poor representatives of viruses. Viral water quality indicators have recently been proposed based on the human gut bacteriophage crAssphage and the food virus pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) due to their high abundance in sewage and association to human waste. Here, we develop a model relating crAssphage and PMMoV abundance to risk of swimmer illness in a recreational water contaminated with fresh, untreated ...
18 CitationsSource
#1Sharon P. Nappier (EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency)H-Index: 7
#2Tao HongH-Index: 8
Last. Sorina E. EftimH-Index: 14
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Coliphage have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in recreational waters because they better reflect the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and through wastewater treatment than traditional fecal indicator bacteria. Herein, we conducted a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed publications to identify coliphage density data (somatic and male-specific, or MSC) in raw wastewater and ambient waters. The literature review inclusion criteria included ...
21 CitationsSource
#1Asja Korajkic (EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency)H-Index: 15
#2Brian R. McMinn (EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency)H-Index: 13
Last. Valerie J. Harwood (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 48
view all 3 authors...
Fecal pollution of recreational waters can cause scenic blight and pose a threat to public health, resulting in beach advisories and closures. Fecal indicator bacteria (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci), and alternative indicators of fecal pollution (Clostridium perfringens and bacteriophages) are routinely used in the assessment of sanitary quality of recreational waters. However, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and alternative indicators are found in the gastrointes...
44 CitationsSource
#1Karena H. Nguyen (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 7
#2C. Senay (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 1
Last. Valerie J. Harwood (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 48
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to assess fecal pollution levels in surface water and are among the criteria used by regulatory agencies to determine water body impairment status. While FIB provide no information about pollution source, microbial source tracking (MST) does, which contributes to more direct and cost effective remediation efforts. We studied a watershed in Florida managed for wildlife conservation that historically exceeded the state regulatory guideline for fecal...
28 CitationsSource
#1Erin M. Symonds (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 15
#2Karena H. Nguyen (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 7
Last. Mya Breitbart (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 67
view all 4 authors...
Abstract An enteric virus surrogate and reliable domestic wastewater tracer is needed to manage microbial quality of food and water as (waste)water reuse becomes more prevalent in response to population growth, urbanization, and climate change. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), a plant pathogen found at high concentrations in domestic wastewater, is a promising surrogate for enteric viruses that has been incorporated into over 29 water- and food-related microbial quality and technology investiga...
44 CitationsSource
#1Pauline Wanjugi (EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency)H-Index: 2
#1Pauline Wanjugi (EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency)H-Index: 9
Last. Orin C. Shanks (EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency)H-Index: 37
view all 16 authors...
Abstract There is a growing interest for the use of coliphage as an alternative indicator to assess fecal pollution in recreational waters. Coliphage are a group of viruses that infect Escherichia coli and are considered as potential surrogates to infer the likely presence of enteric viral pathogens. We report the use of a dead-end hollow fiber ultrafiltration single agar layer method to enumerate F+ and somatic coliphage from surface waters collected from three Great Lake areas. At each locatio...
9 CitationsSource
#1Warish Ahmed (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 44
#2Qian Zhang (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 11
Last. Satoshi Ishii (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 37
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Stormwater contamination can threaten the health of aquatic ecosystems and human exposed to runoff via nutrient and pathogen influxes. In this study, the concentrations of 11 bacterial pathogens and 47 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were determined by using high-throughput microfluidic qPCR (MFQPCR) in several storm drain outfalls (SDOs) during dry and wet weather in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Data generated in this study were also compared with the levels of fecal indicator bacteria ...
44 CitationsSource
Cited By10
#1A.O. Sojobi (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 11
#1Sojobi Ao (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
Last. Tarek Zayed (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 28
view all 2 authors...
Sewer overflow (SO), which has attracted global attention, poses serious threat to public health and ecosystem. SO impacts public health via consumption of contaminated drinking water, aerosolization of pathogens, food-chain transmission, and direct contact with fecally-polluted rivers and beach sediments during recreation. However, no study has attempted to map the linkage between SO and public health including Covid-19 using scientometric analysis and systematic review of literature. Results s...
#1Akechai Kongprajug (Chulabhorn Research Institute)H-Index: 4
#2Natcha Chyerochana (Chulabhorn Research Institute)H-Index: 3
Last. Skorn Mongkolsuk (Chulabhorn Research Institute)H-Index: 16
view all 11 authors...
Abstract null null The degradation of coastal water quality from fecal pollution poses a health risk to visitors at recreational beaches. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are a proxy for fecal pollution; however the accuracy of their representation of fecal pollution health risks at recreational beaches impacted by non-point sources is disputed due to non-human derivation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between FIB and a range of culturable and molecular-based microbial source tr...
#1P. KouameH-Index: 2
#2Anaïs Galli (Swiss TPH: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute)
Last. Mirko S. Winkler (Swiss TPH: Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute)H-Index: 18
view all 0 authors...
In rural settings of Cote d’Ivoire, access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) at schools is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability, quality, and use of WASH infrastructure in schools in the south-central part of Cote d’Ivoire, and to determine the hygiene practices of schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 primary schools with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) direct access to drinking water. The survey was comprised of a questionnaire direc...
#1Nicole C. PowersH-Index: 2
#2Lee J. PinnellH-Index: 11
Last. Jeffrey W. TurnerH-Index: 12
view all 5 authors...
Anthropologists contribute key insights toward a comprehensive understanding of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) as a multidimensional, multiscalar, and culturally embedded phenomenon. Yet, th...
1 CitationsSource
This study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of two coastal ecosystems of Agadir Bay: Oued Souss estuary and Agadir beach (Atlantic coast of Morocco). The study revolves on the effect of environmental parameters on the fecal bacteria populations between March 2018 and February 2019. Environmental parameters and bacterial enumeration of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were performed for water, bivalves (Donax trunculus and Scrobicularia plana) and sediments. Standardize...
1 CitationsSource
#1Reham A. Alfadaly (Mansoura University)
#2Ashraf Elsayed (Mansoura University)H-Index: 6
Last. Ahmed Gebreil (Mansoura University)H-Index: 3
view all 6 authors...
The presence of inorganic pollutants such as Cadmium(II) and Chromium(VI) could destroy our environment and ecosystem. To overcome this problem, much attention was directed to microbial technology, whereas some microorganisms could resist the toxic effects and decrease pollutants concentration while the microbial viability is sustained. Therefore, we built up a complementary strategy to study the biofilm formation of isolated strains under the stress of heavy metals. As target resistive organism...
#1Kevin Orner (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 3
#2Erin M. Symonds (USFSP: University of South Florida St. Petersburg)H-Index: 15
Last. Maryann R. Cairns (SMU: Southern Methodist University)H-Index: 7
view all 7 authors...
Rapidly urbanizing coastal communities are prone to overpopulation and unrestrained growth that result in pathogen and nutrient emissions, which impair beach water quality and jeopardize human and ...
#2Ghorban AsgariH-Index: 17
Last. Mohammad Reza Samarghandi (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences)H-Index: 19
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The present study examines the efficiency of modified bone char (BC) with C-MgO nanoparticles (MBC-C-MgO) as media in a cartridge filter as an antibacterial agent to produce a new filter. The filters were operated in a continuous mode using a pre-static pump. MBC-C-MgO were produced and modified with sucrose through the co-precipitation method. The microbial quality of effluent water samples was compared with commercial refrigerator cartridge filters using a heterotrophic plate count (H...
#1Abdiel E. Laureano-Rosario (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 5
#2Erin M. Symonds (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 15
Last. Frank E. Muller-Karger (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 82
view all 12 authors...
Abstract Environmental conditions influence fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) levels, which are routinely used to characterize recreational water quality. This study examined 15 years of environmental and FIB data at Puntarenas and Jaco beach, Costa Rica. FIB relationships with sea level, wave height, precipitation, direct normal irradiance (DNI), wind, and turbidity were analyzed. Pearson's correlations identified lags between 24 and 96 h among environmental parameters and FIB. Multiple linear reg...
1 CitationsSource