Magic cues versus magic preferences in speciation

Published on Sep 1, 2012in Evolutionary Ecology Research1.094
Ā· DOI :10.7892/BORIS.16589
Martine E. Maan24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology),
Ole Seehausen73
Estimated H-index: 73
(Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology)
Sources
Abstract
Question: How does divergent natural selection lead to divergence in mating traits and the evolution of reproductive isolation? Background: Ecological speciation of non-allopatric taxa usually requires the evolution of an association between selective mating and the traits underlying ecological adaptation. 'Magic traits' affect both ecological fitness and assortative mating and may therefore mediate rapid evolution of reproductive isolation. Problem: When assortative mating is mediated by separate preferences and cues, as opposed to being based on trait similarity (e.g. assortment by body size or habitat), pre-mating reproductive isolation between non-allopatric populations often requires divergence in both mating preferences and mating cues. However, most proposed cases of magic trait speciation rely on observation of divergent mating cues alone, leaving the consequences for reproductive isolation uncertain. Solution: We propose that a distinction should be made between mating cues and mating preferences when documenting divergent natural selection on mating traits. We argue that immediate effects of ecological adaptation on mating preferences, through direct selection or through pleiotropy, will drive divergence in both preferences and traits much more predictably than ecological selection on mating cues. The distinction between 'magic cues' and 'magic preferences' is critical for evaluating the evolutionary consequences of divergent selection on mating traits, and implies a need for increased research effort into documenting variation in mating preferences in diverging taxa.
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References40
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#1Machteld N. Verzijden (Lund University)H-Index: 14
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Learning is widespread in nature, occurring in most animal taxa and in several different ecological contexts and, thus, might play a key role in evolutionary processes. Here, we review the accumulating empirical evidence for the involvement of learning in mate choice and the consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. We distinguish two broad categories: learned mate preferences and learned traits under mate selection (such as bird song). We point out that the context of learni...
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Abstract Many classic models of speciation incorporate assortative mating based on mating groups, such as plants with different flowering times, and they investigate whether an ecological trait under disruptive natural selection becomes genetically associated with the selectively neutral mating trait. It is well known that this genetic association is potently destroyed by recombination. In this note, we point out a more fundamental difficulty: if a ā€œknife-edgeā€ symmetry assumption of previous mo...
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#1Maria R. Servedio (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 35
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The extent to which sexual selection is involved in speciation with gene flow remains an open question and the sub- ject of much research. Here, we propose that some insight can be gained from considering the concept of magic traits (i.e., traits involved in both reproductive isolation and ecological divergence). Both magic traits and other, "non-magic", traits can contribute to speciation via a number of specific mechanisms. We argue that many of these mechanisms are likely to differ widely in ...
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#1Maria R. Servedio (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 35
#2G. Sander van Doorn (University of Bern)H-Index: 22
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In our recent Review in TREE [1], we defined magic traits based on pleiotropy between divergent ecological adaptations and non-random mating. Haller et al. [2] imply doubt in the utility of this definition, concentrating their arguments on effect size (the contribution of a trait to the evolution of reproductive isolation, see [3]). They specifically make two points: (i) effect size is absent from the current definition of a magic trait; and (ii) magic traits of weak effect may be unimportant in...
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Speciation has been a major focus of evolutionary biology research in recent years, with many important advances. However, some of the traditional organising principles of the subject area no longer provide a satisfactory framework, such as the classification of speciation mechanisms by geographical context into allopatric, parapatric and sympatry classes. Therefore, we have asked where speciation research should be directed in the coming years. Here, we present a distillation of questions about...
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Servedio et al. [1], following Gavrilets [2], deļ¬ne a magictrait as ā€˜a trait subject to divergent selection and a traitcontributing to non-random mating that are pleiotropicexpressions of the same gene(s)ā€™. This clariļ¬ed deļ¬nition iscertainly helpful, but we outline here several pivotal ques-tions for empirical research, particularly surrounding thecrucial concept of effect size.The effect size of a magic trait, deļ¬ned by Servedio et al.[1] as ā€˜how much the trait contributed to the evolution ofi...
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#1Maria R. Servedio (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 35
#2G. Sander van Doorn (University of Bern)H-Index: 22
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Speciation with gene flow is greatly facilitated when traits subject to divergent selection also contribute to nonrandom mating. Such traits have been called ā€˜magic traitsā€™, which could be interpreted to imply that they are rare, special, or unrealistic. Here, we question this assumption by illustrating that magic traits can be produced by a variety of mechanisms, including ones in which reproductive isolation arises as an automatic by-product of adaptive divergence. We also draw upon the theore...
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#1Martine E. Maan (University of Bern)H-Index: 24
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Ecological speciation proceeds through the accumulation of divergent traits that contribute to reproductive isolation, but in the face of gene flow traits that characterize incipient species may become disassociated through recombination. Heliconius butterflies are well known for bright mimetic warning patterns that are also used in mate recognition and cause both pre- and post-mating isolation between divergent taxa. Sympatric sister taxa representing the final stages of speciation, such as Hel...
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