riDOM, a cell penetrating peptide. Interaction with phospholipid bilayers.

Published on Mar 1, 2014in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics3.465
· DOI :10.1016/J.BBAMEM.2013.10.017
Gabriela Québatte6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Basel),
Eric A. Kitas19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Hoffmann-La Roche),
Joachim Seelig96
Estimated H-index: 96
(University of Basel)
Abstract Melittin is an amphipathic peptide which has received much attention as a model peptide for peptide–membrane interactions. It is however not suited as a transfection agent due to its cytolytic and toxicological effects. Retro-inverso-melittin, when covalently linked to the lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (riDOM), eliminates these shortcomings. The interaction of riDOM with phospholipid membranes was investigated with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential measurements, and high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry. riDOM forms cationic nanoparticles with a diameter of ~ 13 nm which are well soluble in water and bind with high affinity to DNA and lipid membranes. When dissolved in bilayer membranes, riDOM nanoparticles dissociate and form transient pores. riDOM-induced membrane leakiness is however much reduced compared to that of authentic melittin. The secondary structure of the ri-melittin is not changed when riDOM is transferred from water to the membrane and displays a large fraction of β-structure. The 31P NMR spectrum of the nanoparticle is however transformed into a typical bilayer spectrum. The Gibbs free energy of riDOM binding to bilayer membranes is − 8.0 to − 10.0 kcal/mol which corresponds to the partition energy of just one fatty acyl chain. Half of the hydrophobic surface of the riDOM lipid extension with its 2 oleic acyl chains is therefore involved in a lipid–peptide interaction. This packing arrangement guarantees a good solubility of riDOM both in the aqueous and in the membrane phase. The membrane binding enthalpy is small and riDOM binding is thus entropy-driven.
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