Nature Reviews Urology
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#1Lu Li (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 6
#2Vassilios Papadopoulos (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 85
In Leydig cell dysfunction, cells respond weakly to stimulation by pituitary luteinizing hormone, and, therefore, produce less testosterone, leading to primary hypogonadism. The most widely used treatment for primary hypogonadism is testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, TRT causes infertility and has been associated with other adverse effects, such as causing erythrocytosis and gynaecomastia, worsening obstructive sleep apnoea and increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk...
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#1Roger LiH-Index: 10
#2Jingsong ZhangH-Index: 16
Last. James J. MuléH-Index: 70
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The advent of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has transformed the treatment paradigm for bladder cancer. However, despite the success of ICI in other tumour types, the majority of ICI-treated patients with bladder cancer failed to respond. The lack of efficacy in some patients could be attributed to a paucity of pre-existing immune reactive cells within the tumour immune microenvironment, which limits the beneficial effects of ICI. In this setting, strategies to attract lymphocytes before imp...
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#1Jin-Soo Kim (ECU: Edith Cowan University)
#2Daniel A. Galvão (ECU: Edith Cowan University)H-Index: 41
Last. Dennis R. Taaffe (ECU: Edith Cowan University)H-Index: 65
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Exercise is recognized by clinicians in the field of clinical oncology for its potential role in reducing the risk of certain cancers and in reducing the risk of disease recurrence and progression; yet, the underlying mechanisms behind this reduction in risk are not fully understood. Studies applying post-exercise blood serum directly to various types of cancer cell lines provide insight that exercise might have a role in inhibiting cancer growth via altered soluble and cell-free blood contents....
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#1Niyati Lobo (University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)H-Index: 2
#2Nathan A. Brooks (University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)H-Index: 8
Last. Gary D. SteinbergH-Index: 51
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Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most widely used vaccine worldwide and has been used to prevent tuberculosis for a century. BCG also stimulates an anti-tumour immune response, which urologists have harnessed for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A growing body of evidence indicates that BCG offers protection against various non-mycobacterial and viral infections. The non-specific effects of BCG occur via the induction of trained immunity and form the basis for the hypoth...
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#1Ines Ambite (Lund University)H-Index: 7
#2Daniel S. C. Butler (Lund University)H-Index: 7
Last. Catharina Svanborg (Lund University)H-Index: 91
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The most common and lethal bacterial pathogens have co-evolved with the host. Pathogens are the aggressors, and the host immune system is responsible for the defence. However, immune responses can also become destructive, and excessive innate immune activation is a major cause of infection-associated morbidity, exemplified by symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are caused, in part, by excessive innate immune activation. Severe kidney infections (acute pyelonephritis) are a major c...
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