Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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#1Ian J. Murray (University of Manchester)H-Index: 27
#2Elena Rodrigo-Diaz (University of Manchester)H-Index: 2
Last. Neil R. A. Parry (University of Manchester)H-Index: 20
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The main aim of the paper is to discuss current knowledge on how Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) affects Dark Adaptation (DA). The paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, we outline some of the molecular mechanisms that control DA. Secondly, we review the psychophysical issues and the corresponding analytical techniques. Finally, we characterise the link between slowed DA and the morphological abnormalities in early AMD. Historically, DA has been regarded as too cumbersome for widespr...
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#1T. Rowan Candy (IU: Indiana University)H-Index: 18
#2Lawrence K. Cormack (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 31
Abstract null null Technological advances in recent decades have allowed us to measure both the information available to the visual system in the natural environment and the rich array of behaviors that the visual system supports. This review highlights the tasks undertaken by the binocular visual system in particular and how, for much of human activity, these tasks differ from those considered when an observer fixates a static target on the midline. The everyday motor and perceptual challenges ...
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#1Philip D. Kiser (LBSU: California State University, Long Beach)H-Index: 23
Abstract null null Vertebrate vision critically depends on an 11-cis-retinoid renewal system known as the visual cycle. At the heart of this metabolic pathway is an enzyme known as retinal pigment epithelium 65 kDa protein (RPE65), which catalyzes an unusual, possibly biochemically unique, reaction consisting of a coupled all-trans-retinyl ester hydrolysis and alkene geometric isomerization to produce 11-cis-retinol. Early work on this isomerohydrolase demonstrated its membership to the caroteno...
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#1Young Hyun Kim (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 5
#2Thien Nguyen (University of California, Berkeley)
Last. Clayton J. Radke (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 76
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Hyperosmotic tear stimulates human corneal nerve endings, activates ocular immune response, and elicits dry-eye symptoms. A soft contact lens (SCL) covers the cornea preventing it from experiencing direct tear evaporation and the resulting blink-periodic salinity increases. For the cornea to experience hyperosmolarity due to tear evaporation, salt must transport across the SCL to the post-lens tear film (PoLTF) bathing the cornea. Consequently, limited salt transport across a SCL potentially pro...
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#1Ajay Kumar (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 81
#2Hongmin Yun (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 7
Last. Yiqin Du (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 24
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The cornea is the outmost layer of the eye, unique in its transparency and strength. The cornea not only transmits the light essential for vision, also refracts light, giving focus to images. Each of the three layers of the cornea has properties essential for the function of vision. Although the epithelium can often recover from injury quickly by cell division, loss of limbal stem cells can cause severe corneal surface abnormalities leading to corneal blindness. Disruption of the stromal extrace...
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#1Andrew T. Rider (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology)H-Index: 5
#2G. Bruce Henning (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology)H-Index: 19
Last. Andrew Stockman (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology)H-Index: 28
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Abstract null null Our ability to see flicker has an upper frequency limit above which flicker is invisible, known as the “critical flicker frequency” (CFF), that typically grows with light intensity (I). The relation between CFF and I, the focus of nearly 200 years of research, is roughly logarithmic, i.e., CFF ∝ log(I)—a relation called the Ferry-Porter law. However, why this law should occur, and how it relates to the underlying physiology, have never been adequately explained. Over the past ...
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#1Alejandro J. Roman (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 45
#2Artur V. Cideciyan (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 90
Last. Samuel G. Jacobson (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 115
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Disease mechanisms have become better understood in previously incurable forms of early-onset severe retinal dystrophy, such as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). This has led to novel treatments and clinical trials that have shown some success. Standard methods to measure vision were difficult if not impossible to perform in severely affected patients with low vision and nystagmus. To meet the need for visual assays, we devised a psychophysical method, which we named full-field stimulus testing ...
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#1Camasamudram Vijayasarathy (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 27
#2Sheik Pran Babu Sardar Pasha (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 1
Last. Paul A. Sieving (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 74
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X-linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) is an early-onset transretinal dystrophy, often with a prominent macular component, that affects males and generally spares heterozygous females because of X-linked recessive inheritance. It results from loss-of-function RS1 gene mutations on the X-chromosome. XLRS causes bilateral reduced acuities from young age, and on clinical exam and by ocular coherence tomography (OCT) the neurosensory retina shows foveo-macular cystic schisis cavities in the outer plexiform (...
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Neuroinflammation relying on the inflammatory responses of glial cells has emerged as an impactful component of the multifactorial etiology of neurodegeneration in glaucoma. It has become increasingly evident that despite early adaptive and reparative features of glial responses, prolonged reactivity of the resident glia, along with the peripheral immune cells, create widespread toxicity to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons, somas, and synapses. As much as the synchronized responses of astrocyte...
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Abstract null null The choriocapillaris is the innermost structure of the choroid that directly nourishes the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. This article provides an overview of its hemovasculogenesis development to achieve its final architecture as a lobular vasculature, and also summarizes the current histological and molecular knowledge about choriocapillaris and its dysfunction. After describing the existing state-of-the-art tools to image the choriocapillaris, we report the ...
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