Memory & Cognition
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#1Emma L. Morgan (Cardiff University)
#2Mark K. Johansen (Cardiff University)H-Index: 8
Making property inferences for category instances is important and has been studied in two largely separate areas-categorical induction and perceptual categorization. Categorical induction has a corpus of well-established effects using complex, real-world categories; however, the representational basis of these effects is unclear. In contrast, the perceptual categorization paradigm has fostered the assessment of well-specified representation models due to its controlled stimuli and categories. I...
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#1Megan O. Kelly (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 3
#2Evan F. Risko (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 33
Relying on external memory aids is a common memory strategy that has long allowed us to “remember” vast amounts of information more reliably than with our internal memory alone. However, recent work has provided evidence consistent with the idea that offloading memory demands encourages a reduced engagement in intentional or top-down memory strategies/efforts, leading to lower memory performance in general. Evidence for this view comes from results demonstrating a reduced primacy effect but inta...
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#1Kaitlyn Fallow (UVic: University of Victoria)H-Index: 1
#2D. Stephen Lindsay (UVic: University of Victoria)H-Index: 50
When old/new recognition memory is tested with equal numbers of studied and nonstudied items and no rewards or instructions that favour one response over the other, there is no obvious reason for response bias. In line with this, Canadian undergraduates have shown, on average, a neutral response bias when we tested them on recognition of common English words. By contrast, most subjects we have tested on recognition of richly detailed images have shown a conservative bias: they more often erred b...
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#1Lupita Estefania Gazzo Castañeda (University of Giessen)H-Index: 3
#2Markus Knauff (University of Giessen)H-Index: 30
When people have prior knowledge about an inference, they accept conclusions from specific conditionals (e.g., “If Jack does sports, then Jack loses weight”) more strongly than for unspecific conditionals (e.g., “If a person does sports, then the person loses weight”). But can specific phrasings also elevate the acceptance of conclusions from unbelievable conditionals? In Experiment 1, we varied the specificity of counterintuitive conditionals, which described the opposite of what is expected ac...
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#1Barbara L. Pitts (Florida State University College of Arts and Sciences)
#2Maverick E. Smith (Florida State University College of Arts and Sciences)
Last. Heather R. Bailey (Florida State University College of Arts and Sciences)
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While semantic and episodic memory may be distinct memory systems, their interdependence is substantial. For instance, decades of work have shown that semantic knowledge facilitates episodic memory. Here, we aim to clarify this interactive relationship by determining whether semantic knowledge facilitates the acquisition of new episodic memories, in part, by influencing an encoding mechanism, event segmentation. In the current study, we evaluated the extent to which semantic knowledge shapes how...
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#1Mohan W. Gupta (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 2
#2Steven C. Pan (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 10
Last. Timothy C. Rickard (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 23
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In three experiments we investigated how the level of study-based, episodic knowledge influences the efficacy of subsequent retrieval practice (testing) as a learning event. Possibilities are that the efficacy of a test, relative to a restudy control, decreases, increases, or is independent of the degree of prior study-based learning. The degree of study-based learning was manipulated by varying the number of item repetitions in the initial study phase between one and eight. Predictions of the d...
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#1José Luis TapiaH-Index: 1
#2Eva Rosa (University of Valencia)H-Index: 11
Last. Manuel Perea (University of Valencia)H-Index: 62
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Recent studies have revealed that presenting novel words across various contexts (i.e., contextual diversity) helps to consolidate the meaning of these words both in adults and children. This effect has been typically explained in terms of semantic distinctiveness (e.g., Semantic Distinctiveness Model, Jones et al., Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 115, 2012). However, the relative influence of other, non-semantic, elements of the context is still unclear. In this study, we ex...
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#1Mark W. Susmann (OSU: Ohio State University)
#2Duane T. Wegener (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 48
Research examining the continued influence effect (CIE) of misinformation has reliably found that belief in misinformation persists even after the misinformation has been retracted. However, much remains to be learned about the psychological mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. Most theorizing in this domain has focused on cognitive mechanisms. Yet some proposed cognitive explanations provide reason to believe that motivational mechanisms might also play a role. The present research teste...
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#1G. Elliott Wimmer (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 16
#2Russell A. Poldrack (Stanford University)H-Index: 126
Neuroscience research has illuminated the mechanisms supporting learning from reward feedback, demonstrating a critical role for the striatum and midbrain dopamine system. However, in humans, short-term working memory that is dependent on frontal and parietal cortices can also play an important role, particularly in commonly used paradigms in which learning is relatively condensed in time. Given the growing use of reward-based learning tasks in translational studies in computational psychiatry, ...
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#1Katherine L. McNeely-White (CSU: Colorado State University)H-Index: 3
#2David G. McNeely-White (CSU: Colorado State University)H-Index: 4
Last. Anne M. Cleary (CSU: Colorado State University)H-Index: 22
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Approaches to modeling episodic recognition memory often imply a separability from semantic memory insofar as an implicit tabula rasa (i.e., blank slate) assumption is apparent in many simulations. This is evident in the common practice of having new test probes correspond to zero memory traces in the store while old test probes correspond to traces representing instances of items' occurrence on a study list. However, in list-learning studies involving word lists, none of the test items would ac...
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