Co-chaperone involvement in knob biogenesis implicates host-derived chaperones in malaria virulence.

Published on Oct 6, 2021in PLOS Pathogens6.823
· DOI :10.1371/JOURNAL.PPAT.1009969
Mathias Diehl2
Estimated H-index: 2
L. Roling1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Giessen)
+ 10 AuthorsJulia Hahn1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Giessen)
The pathology associated with malaria infection is largely due to the ability of infected human RBCs to adhere to a number of receptors on endothelial cells within tissues and organs. This phenomenon is driven by the export of parasite-encoded proteins to the host cell, the exact function of many of which is still unknown. Here we inactivate the function of one of these exported proteins, PFA66, a member of the J-domain protein family. Although parasites lacking this protein were still able to grow in cell culture, we observed severe defects in normal host cell modification, including aberrant morphology of surface knobs, disrupted presentation of the cytoadherence molecule PfEMP1, and a total lack of cytoadherence, despite the presence of the knob associated protein KAHRP. Complementation assays demonstrate that an intact J-domain is required for recovery to a wild-type phenotype and suggest that PFA66 functions in concert with a HSP70 to carry out host cell modification. Strikingly, this HSP70 is likely to be of host origin. ATPase assays on recombinant protein verify a functional interaction between PFA66 and residual host cell HSP70. Taken together, our data reveal a role for PFA66 in host cell modification, strongly implicate human HSP70s as being essential in this process and uncover a new KAHRP-independent molecular factor required for correct knob biogenesis.
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#2Laura Le Breton (Heidelberg University)H-Index: 6
Last. Matthias P. Mayer (Heidelberg University)H-Index: 67
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The heat shock response is a universal transcriptional response to proteotoxic stress orchestrated by heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 in all eukaryotic cells. Despite over 40 years of intense research, the mechanism of Hsf1 activity regulation remains poorly understood at the molecular level. In metazoa, Hsf1 trimerizes upon heat shock through a leucine-zipper domain and binds to DNA. How Hsf1 is dislodged from DNA and monomerized remained enigmatic. Here, using purified proteins, we demons...
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#2Olivia M. S. Carmo (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 3
Last. Matthew W. A. Dixon (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 31
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ABSTRACT The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum traffics the virulence protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of infected red blood cells (RBCs) via membranous organelles, known as the Maurer’s clefts. We developed a method for efficient enrichment of Maurer’s clefts and profiled the protein composition of this trafficking organelle. We identified 13 previously uncharacterized or poorly characterized Maurer’s cleft proteins. We generated transfectants ex...
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Malaria parasites activate a broad-selectivity ion channel on their host erythrocyte membrane to obtain essential nutrients from the bloodstream. This conserved channel, known as the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), has been linked to parasite clag3 genes in P. falciparum, but epigenetic switching between the two copies of this gene hinders clear understanding of how the encoded protein determines PSAC activity. Here, we used linkage analysis in a P. falciparum cross where one parent car...
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#2Armin Passecker (University of Basel)H-Index: 3
Last. Ioannis Vakonakis (University of Oxford)H-Index: 26
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Plasmodium falciparum is the most lethal of human-infective malaria parasites. A hallmark of P. falciparum malaria is extensive remodeling of host erythrocytes by the parasite, which facilitates th...
We present ilastik, an easy-to-use interactive tool that brings machine-learning-based (bio)image analysis to end users without substantial computational expertise. It contains pre-defined workflows for image segmentation, object classification, counting and tracking. Users adapt the workflows to the problem at hand by interactively providing sparse training annotations for a nonlinear classifier. ilastik can process data in up to five dimensions (3D, time and number of channels). Its computatio...
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#2Adam J. Blanch (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 15
Last. Matthew W. A. Dixon (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 31
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#2C. Karathanasis (Goethe University Frankfurt)H-Index: 17
Last. Michael LanzerH-Index: 56
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PfEMP1 (erythrocyte membrane protein 1) adhesins play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria, by mediating sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the microvasculature. PfEMP1 variants are expressed by var genes and are presented on membrane elevations, termed knobs. However, the organization of PfEMP1 on knobs is largely unclear. Here, we use super-resolution microscopy and genetically altered parasites expressing a modified var2csa gene in which the...
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#2C. S. Simon (Heidelberg University)H-Index: 2
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Abstract Immunofluorescence staining is the key technique for visualizing organization of endogenous cellular structures in single cells. Labeling and imaging of blood stage Plasmodium falciparum has always been challenging since it is a small intracellular parasite. A widely-used standard for parasite immunofluorescence is fixation in suspension with addition of minute amounts of glutaraldehyde to the paraformaldehyde-based solution. While this maintains red blood cell integrity, it has been po...
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#2Vikash Kumar (G.N.D.U.: Guru Nanak Dev University)H-Index: 4
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Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant cell type in the human body. RBCs and, in particular, their plasma membrane composition have been extensively studied for many years. During the past decade proteomics studies have extended our knowledge on RBC composition; however, these studies did not provide quantitative insights. Here we report a large-scale proteomics investigation of RBCs and their “white ghost” membrane fraction. Samples were processed using the multienzyme digestion filter-ai...
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