Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer.

Published on Sep 15, 2021in Nature Reviews Urology14.432
· DOI :10.1038/S41585-021-00514-9
Gaëtan Devos6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven),
Wout Devlies3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
+ 9 AuthorsWouter Everaerts23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with curative intent are at an increased risk of biochemical recurrence, metastatic progression and cancer-related death compared with patients treated for low-risk or intermediate-risk disease. Thus, these patients often need multimodal therapy to achieve complete disease control. Over the past two decades, multiple studies on the use of neoadjuvant treatment have been performed using conventional androgen deprivation therapy, which comprises luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or antagonists and/or first-line anti-androgens. However, despite results from these studies demonstrating a reduction in positive surgical margins and tumour volume, no benefit has been observed in hard oncological end points, such as cancer-related death. The introduction of potent androgen receptor signalling inhibitors (ARSIs), such as abiraterone, apalutamide, enzalutamide and darolutamide, has led to a renewed interest in using neoadjuvant hormonal treatment in high-risk prostate cancer. The addition of ARSIs to androgen deprivation therapy has demonstrated substantial survival benefits in the metastatic castration-resistant, non-metastatic castration-resistant and metastatic hormone-sensitive settings. Intuitively, a similar survival effect can be expected when applying ARSIs as a neoadjuvant strategy in high-risk prostate cancer. Most studies on neoadjuvant ARSIs use a pathological end point as a surrogate for long-term oncological outcome. However, no consensus yet exists regarding the ideal definition of pathological response following neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and pathologists might encounter difficulties in determining pathological response in hormonally treated prostate specimens. The neoadjuvant setting also provides opportunities to gain insight into resistance mechanisms against neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and, consequently, to guide personalized therapy. Cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer is common. The addition of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with the introduction of potent androgen receptor signalling inhibitors has gained interest in the oncological community. However, conclusions of a survival benefit with this therapy cannot currently be made and results of several phase II trials are much anticipated.
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