Dual-stage and dual-deficit? Word recognition processes during text reading across the reading fluency continuum

Published on Aug 23, 2021in Reading and Writing
· DOI :10.1007/S11145-021-10201-1
Jarkko Hautala6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Stefan Hawelka17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Salzburg),
Mikko Aro28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Jyväskylä)
Sources
Abstract
Central questions in the study of visual word recognition and developmental dyslexia are whether early lexical activation precedes and supports decoding (a dual-stage view) or not (dual-route view), and the locus of deficits in dysfluent reading. The dual-route view predicts early word frequency and length interaction, whereas the dual-stage view predicts word frequency effect to precede the interaction effect. These predictions were tested on eye movements data collected from (n = 152) children aged 9–10 among whom reading dysfluency was overrepresented. In line with the dual-stage view, the results revealed an early word frequency effect in first fixation duration followed by robust word length effect in refixation probability and an interaction of word frequency and word length in summed refixation duration. This progression was advanced in fluent reading to be observable already in first fixation duration. Poor reading fluency was mostly explained by inflated first fixation durations, and to stronger word frequency and length effects in summed refixation duration. This pattern of results suggests deficits in early letter encoding and slowness in serial grapheme-phoneme conversion. In contrast to the widely held belief, the holistic orthographic processing of words seemed to be intact.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
14 Citations
1 Citations
References108
Newest
#1Douglas M. BatesH-Index: 38
#2Martin MaechlerH-Index: 10
Last. Steven C. WalkerH-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
81 Citations
#1Desiré Carioti (University of Urbino)H-Index: 2
#2Marta Franca Masia (University of Urbino)H-Index: 1
Last. Manuela Berlingeri (University of Urbino)H-Index: 14
view all 4 authors...
Cross-cultural studies have suggested that reading deficits in developmental dyslexia (DD) can be moderated by orthographic depth. To further explore this issue and assess the moderating role of orthographic depth in the developmental cognitive trajectories of dyslexic and typical readers, we systematically reviewed 113 studies on DD that were published from 2013 to 2018 and selected 79 in which participants received an official DD diagnosis. Each study was classified according to orthographic d...
4 CitationsSource
#1Nicole A. Himmelstoss (University of Salzburg)H-Index: 4
#2Sarah Schuster (University of Salzburg)H-Index: 10
Last. Stefan Hawelka (University of Salzburg)H-Index: 17
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACTSixteen years ago, Sereno and Rayner (2003. Measuring word recognition in reading: eye movements and event-related potentials. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(11), 489–493) illustrated how “by means of review and comparison” eye movement (EM) and event-related potential (ERP) studies may advance our understanding of visual word recognition. Attempts to simultaneously record EMs and ERPs soon followed. Recently, this co-registration approach has also been transferred to fMRI and oscillato...
12 CitationsSource
#1Otto Loberg (University of Jyväskylä)H-Index: 7
#2Jarkko HautalaH-Index: 6
Last. Paavo H.T. Leppänen (University of Jyväskylä)H-Index: 37
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Word length is one of the main determinants of eye movements during reading and has been shown to influence slow readers more strongly than typical readers. The influence of word length on reading in individuals with different reading skill levels has been shown in separate eye-tracking and electroencephalography studies. However, the influence of reading difficulty on cortical correlates of word length effect during natural reading is unknown. To investigate how reading skill is relate...
9 CitationsSource
#1Johannes C. ZieglerH-Index: 67
#2Conrad PerryH-Index: 23
Last. Marco ZorziH-Index: 59
view all 3 authors...
Introduction Reading is a highly complex task that relies on the integration of visual, orthographic, phonological and semantic information. This complexity is clearly reflected in current computational models of reading (Coltheart et al.
3 CitationsSource
#1Sara Bertoni (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 7
#2Sandro Franceschini (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 14
Last. Andrea Facoetti (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 39
view all 5 authors...
Abstract For about 10% of children reading acquisition is extremely difficult because they are affected by a heritable neurobiological disorder called developmental dyslexia (DD), mainly associated to an auditory-phonological disorder. Visual crowding is a universal phenomenon that impairs the recognition of stimuli in clutter, such as a letter in a word or a word in a text. Several studies have shown an excessive crowding in individuals with DD, but the causal link between excessive crowding an...
22 CitationsSource
#1Heike MehlhaseH-Index: 1
#2Sarolta BakosH-Index: 6
Last. Kristina MollH-Index: 19
view all 5 authors...
Dissociations between reading and spelling problems are likely to be associated with different underlying cognitive deficits, and with different deficits in orthographic learning. In order ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Susana Araújo (University of Lisbon)H-Index: 10
#2Luís Faísca (University of the Algarve)H-Index: 17
ABSTRACTThis study presents a meta-analytic review of serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficits in individuals with dyslexia relative to typical readers (based on 216 effect sizes comprising 8...
20 CitationsSource
#1Conrad Perry (Swinburne University of Technology)H-Index: 23
#2Marco Zorzi (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 59
Last. Johannes C. Ziegler (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 67
view all 3 authors...
Learning to read is foundational for literacy development, yet many children in primary school fail to become efficient readers despite normal intelligence and schooling. This condition, referred to as developmental dyslexia, has been hypothesized to occur because of deficits in vision, attention, auditory and temporal processes, and phonology and language. Here, we used a developmentally plausible computational model of reading acquisition to investigate how the core deficits of dyslexia determ...
30 CitationsSource
This mini-review provides a comparison of the brain systems associated with developmental dyslexia and the brain systems associated with letter-speech sound integration. First, the findings on the functional neuroanatomy of letter-speech sound integration are summarized in order to obtain a comprehensive overview of the brain regions involved in this process. To this end, neurocognitive studies investigating letter-speech sound integration in both normal and abnormal reading development are take...
24 CitationsSource
Cited By0
Newest