Effects of canagliflozin on human myocardial redox signalling: clinical implications.

Published on Jul 19, 2021in European Heart Journal29.983
· DOI :10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHAB420
Murray D. Polkinghorne3
Estimated H-index: 3
(John Radcliffe Hospital)
Sources
Abstract
Aims null Recent clinical trials indicate that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We explored the direct effects of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor with mild SGLT1 inhibitory effects, on myocardial redox signalling in humans. null Methods and results null Study 1 included 364 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Right atrial appendage biopsies were harvested to quantify superoxide (O2.-) sources and the expression of inflammation, fibrosis, and myocardial stretch genes. In Study 2, atrial tissue from 51 patients was used ex vivo to study the direct effects of canagliflozin on NADPH oxidase activity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling. Differentiated H9C2 and primary human cardiomyocytes (hCM) were used to further characterize the underlying mechanisms (Study 3). SGLT1 was abundantly expressed in human atrial tissue and hCM, contrary to SGLT2. Myocardial SGLT1 expression was positively associated with O2.- production and pro-fibrotic, pro-inflammatory, and wall stretch gene expression. Canagliflozin reduced NADPH oxidase activity via AMP kinase (AMPK)/Rac1signalling and improved NOS coupling via increased tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability ex vivo and in vitro. These were attenuated by knocking down SGLT1 in hCM. Canagliflozin had striking ex vivo transcriptomic effects on myocardial redox signalling, suppressing apoptotic and inflammatory pathways in hCM. null Conclusions null We demonstrate for the first time that canagliflozin suppresses myocardial NADPH oxidase activity and improves NOS coupling via SGLT1/AMPK/Rac1 signalling, leading to global anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in the human myocardium. These findings reveal a novel mechanism contributing to the beneficial cardiac effects of canagliflozin.
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AIMS: Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed favourable cardiovascular outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. This study investigated the mechanisms of empagliflozin in human and murine heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The acute mechanisms of empagliflozin were investigated in human myocardium from patients with HFpEF and murine ZDF obese rats, which were treated in vivo. As shown with immunoblots and ELISA, empagl...
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#5Fei Han (Tianjin Medical University)H-Index: 6
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Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitor, reduces heart failure and sudden cardiac death but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In cardiomyocytes, SGLT1 and SGLT2 expression is upregulated in diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. We hypothesise that empagliflozin exerts direct effects on cardiomyocytes that attenuate diabetic cardiomyopathy. To test this hypothesis, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were...
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Selective sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in large-scale clinical trials. The exact mechanism of action is currently unclear. The dual SGLT1/2 inhibitor sotagliflozin not only reduced hospitalization for HF in patients with T2DM, but also lowered the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, suggesting a possible additional benefit related to SGLT1 inhibition. In fact, sever...
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