Bladder perforation during transurethral resection of the bladder: a comprehensive algorithm for diagnosis, management and follow up.

Published on Jul 15, 2021
· DOI :10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04436-0
Chiara Lonati1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Francesco Esperto17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Università Campus Bio-Medico)
+ 16 AuthorsRenzo Colombo57
Estimated H-index: 57
(UniSR: Vita-Salute San Raffaele University)
Source
Abstract
INTRODUCTION Despite bladder perforation (BP) is a frequent complication during transurethral resection of bladder (TURB) for bladder cancer (BCa), literature lacks systematic reviews focusing on this issue. We aimed to investigate incidence, diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis after BP during TURB for BCa; therapy was distinguished between conservative (without the need for bladder repair) and surgical management (requiring bladder wall closure). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION A systematic search was conducted up to April 2021 using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science to identify articles focusing on incidence, detection, management, or survival outcomes after iatrogenic BP. The selection of articles followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses process. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS We included 41 studies, involving 21,174 patients. Overall, 521 patients experienced BP during TURB for BCa, with a mean incidence of 2.4%, up to 58.3% when post-operative cystography is routinely performed after all TURB procedures. Risk factors were low body mass index (BMI) (p=0.01), resection depth (p=0.006 and p=0.03), and low surgical experience (p=0.006). Extraperitoneal BP (68.5%) were treated conservatively in 97.5% of patients; intraperitoneal BP were managed with surgical bladder closure in 56% of cases. Overall, three immediate BP-related deaths were recorded due to septic complications. Extravesical tumour seeding was observed after 6 intraperitoneal and 1 extraperitoneal BP (median time: 6.2 months). Intraperitoneal BP (p=0.0003) and bladder closure (p<0.001) were found as independent predictors of extravesical tumour recurrence. CONCLUSIONS BP is more frequent than expected when proper diagnosis is routinely performed after all TURB procedures. Risk factors include low BMI, resection depth, and unexperienced surgeon. The risk of sepsis after BP suggests empirical antibiotic prophylaxis after BP.
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