Layer interface effects on dielectric breakdown strength of 3D printed rubber insulator using stereolithography

Published on Oct 1, 2021in Additive manufacturing7.002
· DOI :10.1016/J.ADDMA.2021.102069
Abstract null null The use of 3D printing technology enables the fabrication of optimally shaped and functionally graded structured high-voltage solid insulators that could be used efficiently in power grids owing to their compact size and reliability. However, understanding the layer interface effect is challenging. Therefore, we investigated the layer interface effect on the dielectric breakdown strength of 3D printed rubber insulators. We fabricated acrylic rubber insulators in different laminate directions using a stereolithographic 3D printer. The breakdown test revealed that a layer interface with a 0.1 mm laminating pitch reduced the AC breakdown strength of the insulators. Further, we evaluated the morphology of the layer interface and the surrounding hardness using microscopic and nanoindentation analyses. We found no delamination or voids around the layer interface. However, differences in hardness between the layer interface and the other part were observed. Therefore, it was concluded that owing to insufficient curing around the layer interfaces, the difference in the material structure promoted dielectric breakdown. Consequently, to minimize the layer interface effect on the breakdown strength, we proposed a thinner layer and 3D cylindrical printings.
#1Xiao-Ran Li (Xi'an Jiaotong University)H-Index: 6
#2Liu Zhe (Xi'an Jiaotong University)H-Index: 4
Last. Guan-Jun Zhang (Xi'an Jiaotong University)
view all 7 authors...
Solid insulators applying functionally graded material (d-FGM) have spatially non-uniform dielectric properties. The d-FGM insulator is effective on insulation performance improvement without complicating the structure; however, the fabrication of such insulators remains a challenge. To investigate the feasibility of 3D printing technology on d-FGM, we designed and fabricated a conductivity non-uniform insulator and tested its surface flashover characteristics. First, a modified genetic algorith...
17 CitationsSource
In recent years, additive manufacturing has been one of the most noteworthy technologies in the industry segment comprising high-voltage engineering and insulating materials. In this study, the influence of the surface roughness of an additive manufacturing polymer on the surface flashover voltage is investigated. We prepared two types of sample plate having the same volume resistivity and surface resistivity but different surface roughness by changing the building orientation (horizontally buil...
2 CitationsSource
#1Brad W. Hoff (AFRL: Air Force Research Laboratory)H-Index: 15
#2Sabrina S. Maestas (AFRL: Air Force Research Laboratory)H-Index: 3
Last. Serhiy O. LeontsevH-Index: 3
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Anisotropy in dielectric properties can have deleterious effects in structures intended for use in high-field environments. We show that dielectric anisotropy is introduced into parts fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques based on the orientation in which the part is printed. Dielectric strength testing data, based on the ASTM D149 standard, are presented for samples fabricated using the polymer jetting (PolyJet), stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), an...
5 CitationsSource
#1Muneaki Kurimoto (Nagoya University)H-Index: 11
#2Hiroya Ozaki (Nagoya University)H-Index: 3
Last. Yasuo Suzuoki (Aichi Institute of Technology)H-Index: 23
view all 6 authors...
The feasibility of a permittivity-graded epoxy insulator with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was clarified by evaluating the dielectric and thermomechanical properties of TiO2/SiO2 epoxy composites, which were epoxy composites co-filled with TiO2 and SiO2 particles. Upon varying the filling ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 while keeping the total filler volume constant, the relative permittivity of the TiO2/SiO2 epoxy composites varied in the range of 3.5–7.5 in our experiment while the CTE r...
13 CitationsSource
#1Dorcas V. Kaweesa (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 4
#2Nicholas A. Meisel (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 11
Abstract The capability of Additive Manufacturing (AM) to manufacture multi-materials allows the fabrication of complex and multifunctional objects with heterogeneous material compositions and varying mechanical properties. The material jetting AM process specifically has the capability to manufacture multi-material structures with both rigid and flexible material properties. Existing research has investigated the fatigue properties of 3D printed multi-material specimens and shows that there is ...
13 CitationsSource
#1Jill Z. Manapat (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 4
#2Qiyi Chen (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 14
Last. Rigoberto C. Advincula (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 74
view all 4 authors...
Additive manufacturing (AM) is still underutilized as an industrial process, but is quickly gaining momentum with the development of innovative techniques and materials for various applications. In particular, stereolithography (SLA) is now shifting from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing, but is facing challenges in parts performance and printing speed, among others. This review discusses the application of SLA for polymer nanocomposites fabrication to show the technology's potential in i...
124 CitationsSource
#1Jill Z. Manapat (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 4
#2Joey Dacula Mangadlao (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 18
Last. Rigoberto C. Advincula (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 74
view all 5 authors...
The weak thermomechanical properties of commercial 3D printing plastics have limited the technology’s application mainly to rapid prototyping. In this report, we demonstrate a simple approach that takes advantage of the metastable, temperature-dependent structure of graphene oxide (GO) to enhance the mechanical properties of conventional 3D-printed resins produced by stereolithography (SLA). A commercially available SLA resin was reinforced with minimal amounts of GO nanofillers and thermally an...
66 CitationsSource
#1Xin Wang (UCF: University of Central Florida)H-Index: 5
#2Man Jiang (Southwest Jiaotong University)H-Index: 24
Last. David Hui (UNO: University of New Orleans)H-Index: 77
view all 5 authors...
Abstract The use of 3D printing for rapid tooling and manufacturing has promised to produce components with complex geometries according to computer designs. Due to the intrinsically limited mechanical properties and functionalities of printed pure polymer parts, there is a critical need to develop printable polymer composites with high performance. 3D printing offers many advantages in the fabrication of composites, including high precision, cost effective and customized geometry. This article ...
1,124 CitationsSource
#1Muneaki Kurimoto (Nagoya University)H-Index: 11
#2Hiroya Ozaki (Nagoya University)H-Index: 3
Last. Yasuo Suzuoki (Nagoya University)H-Index: 23
view all 6 authors...
3D printing has potential to provide various solid insulating material such as a functionally graded material. It has not been clarified if the polymer-ceramic composite, the basic structure for the solid insulating material, can be 3D-printed even when the large amount of insulating ceramics fillers are introduced. This paper investigated the feasibility of the stereolithographic 3D printing of an insulating component using a UV-cured acrylic composite with a micorometric alumina fillers (alumi...
20 CitationsSource
#1Zixiang Weng (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 10
#2Yu Zhou (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 3
Last. Lixin Wu (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Organically modified nanofillers, including nano SiO 2 , montmorillonite and attapulgite were loaded to stereolithography resin (SLR). The surface of nanofillers were modified using organic modifier of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS) and (1-hexadecyl)dimethyl allyl ammonium chloride (C 16 -DMAAC), and were characterized by FTIR and small angle XRD analysis. The morphology of nanocomposites were observed by TEM. Viscosity and curing speed of SLR nanocomposites at increasin...
84 CitationsSource
Cited By0