Diving physiology of marine mammals and birds: the development of biologging techniques.

Published on Aug 2, 2021in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B5.68
· DOI :10.1098/RSTB.2020.0211
In the 1940s, Scholander and Irving revealed fundamental physiological responses to forced diving of marine mammals and birds, setting the stage for the study of diving physiology. Since then, diving physiology research has moved from the laboratory to the field. Modern biologging, with the development of microprocessor technology, recorder memory capacity and battery life, has advanced and expanded investigations of the diving physiology of marine mammals and birds. This review describes a brief history of the start of field diving physiology investigations, including the invention of the time depth recorder, and then tracks the use of biologging studies in four key diving physiology topics: heart rate, blood flow, body temperature and oxygen store management. Investigations of diving heart rates in cetaceans and O2 store management in diving emperor penguins are highlighted to emphasize the value of diving physiology biologging research. The review concludes with current challenges, remaining diving physiology questions and what technologies are needed to advance the field. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part I)'.
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