Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Cancer-A Comprehensive Review.

Published on May 31, 2021in Cancers6.126
· DOI :10.3390/CANCERS13112722
Greta Brezgyte (QMUL: Queen Mary University of London), Vinay Shah (QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)+ 1 AuthorsTatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic34
Estimated H-index: 34
(QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) carries a deadly diagnosis, due in large part to delayed presentation when the disease is already at an advanced stage. CA19-9 is currently the most commonly utilized biomarker for PDAC; however, it lacks the necessary accuracy to detect precursor lesions or stage I PDAC. Novel biomarkers that could detect this malignancy with improved sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) would likely result in more curative resections and more effective therapeutic interventions, changing thus the present dismal survival figures. The aim of this study was to systematically and comprehensively review the scientific literature on non-invasive biomarkers in biofluids such as blood, urine and saliva that were attempting earlier PDAC detection. The search performed covered a period of 10 years (January 2010-August 2020). Data were extracted using keywords search in the three databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science and Embase. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool was applied for study selection based on establishing the risk of bias and applicability concerns in Patient Selection, Index test (biomarker assay) and Reference Standard (standard-of-care diagnostic test). Out of initially over 4000 published reports, 49 relevant studies were selected and reviewed in more detail. In addition, we discuss the present challenges and complexities in the path of translating the discovered biomarkers into the clinical setting. Our systematic review highlighted several promising biomarkers that could, either alone or in combination with CA19-9, potentially improve earlier detection of PDAC. Overall, reviewed biomarker studies should aim to improve methodological and reporting quality, and novel candidate biomarkers should be investigated further in order to demonstrate their clinical usefulness. However, challenges and complexities in the path of translating the discovered biomarkers from the research laboratory to the clinical setting remain and would have to be addressed before a more realistic breakthrough in earlier detection of PDAC is achieved.
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Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Debernardi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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