Clinical Implications of Exosomes: Targeted Drug Delivery for Cancer Treatment

Published on May 17, 2021in International Journal of Molecular Sciences4.556
· DOI :10.3390/IJMS22105278
Andrew E. Massey5
Estimated H-index: 5
(NIH: National Institutes of Health),
Shabnam Malik8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 7 AuthorsBilal B. Hafeez2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Texas at Austin)
Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles generated by cells for intercellular communication. Due to their composition, significant research has been conducted to transform these particles into specific delivery systems for various disease states. In this review, we discuss the common isolation and loading methods of exosomes, some of the major roles of exosomes in the tumor microenvironment, as well as discuss recent applications of exosomes as drug delivery vessels and the resulting clinical implications.
Figures & Tables
#1Zicong GaoH-Index: 3
#2Xingxing HanH-Index: 1
Last. Fei ZhangH-Index: 21
view all 10 authors...
Tumor metastasis induced by drug resistance is a major challenge in successful cancer treatment. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the pro-invasive and metastatic ability of drug resistance remain elusive. Exosome-mediated intercellular communications between cancer cells and stromal cells in tumor microenvironment are required for cancer initiation and progression. Recent reports have shown that communications between cancer cells also promote tumor aggression. However, little attention h...
#1Aqsa Qambrani (SEU: Southeast University)H-Index: 1
#2Fawad Ur Rehman (SEU: Southeast University)H-Index: 14
Last. Xuemei Wang (SEU: Southeast University)H-Index: 50
view all 9 authors...
Therapy against cancer still stays a daunting issue for human health, regardless of remarkable innovation in a wide range of pathology. In situ biosynthesized nanoclusters bestow a novel remedy for carcinogenic cell imaging. Exosomes have got special attention as an efficient tool for the diagnosis of various diseases, including cancers. All types of cells (healthy or diseased) generate exosomes, making them significantly unique for relevant disease diagnosis and treatment. In this contribution,...
#1Benilde Adriano (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 1
#2Nycol M. Cotto (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 1
Last. Murali M. Yallapu (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 34
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Exosomes are a unique subpopulation of naturally occurring extracellular vesicles which are smaller intracellular membrane nanoparticle vesicles. Exosomes have proven to be excellent nanocarriers for carrying lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and DNAs, and disseminating long-distance intercellular communications in various biological processes. Among various cell-line or biological fluid derived exosomes, milk exosomes are abundant in nature and exhibit many nanocarrier characte...
#1Faezeh Vakhshiteh (Tehran University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 11
#2Soheila Rahmani (Tehran University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 7
Last. Fatemeh Atyabi (Tehran University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 58
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Aims Exosomes hold great promise as bio-inspired delivery vehicles. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recognized for their potential to yield huge quantities of exosomes. We aimed to investigate the potential use of modified exosomes derived from genetically modified dental pulp MSCs (DPSCs) as a carrier to deliver tumor suppressor miR-34a to repress proliferation of breast carcinoma cells. Materials and methods miR-34a-overexpressing DPSCs were prepared using XMIRXpress-34a lentivector...
2 CitationsSource
#1Xinxin YuanH-Index: 3
#2Niansong QianH-Index: 1
Last. Yingxian LiH-Index: 7
view all 28 authors...
Rationale: Breast cancer preferentially develops osteolytic bone metastasis, which makes patients suffer from pain, fractures and spinal cord compression. Accumulating evidences have shown that exosomes play an irreplaceable role in pre-metastatic niche formation as a communication messenger. However, the function of exosomes secreted by breast cancer cells remains incompletely understood in bone metastasis of breast cancer. Methods: Mouse xenograft models and intravenous injection of exosomes w...
1 CitationsSource
#1Wenxi Zhou (Fudan University)H-Index: 9
#2Yu Zhou (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University)H-Index: 2
Last. Chen Jiang (Fudan University)H-Index: 38
view all 13 authors...
Immunotherapy has gained increasing focus in treating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), since conventional therapies like chemotherapy could not provide satisfactory improvement in overall survival outcome of PDAC patients. However, it is still not the game changing solution due to the unique tumor microenvironment and low cancer immunogenicity of PDAC. Thus, inducing more intratumoral effector immune cells as well as reversing immunosuppression is the core of PDAC treatment. Herein, we d...
5 CitationsSource
#1Donghong YuanH-Index: 1
#2Yu ChenH-Index: 1
Last. Bo Chen (Kunming Medical University)H-Index: 11
view all 16 authors...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Increasing studies showed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a novel class of RNAs that are greater than 200 nucleotides in length but lack the ability to encode proteins, exert crucial roles in the occurrence and progression of HCC. LncRNAs promote the proliferation, migration, invasion, autophagy, and apoptosis of tumor cells by regulating downstream target gene expression and cancer-related signal...
2 CitationsSource
#1Elnaz Bagheri (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 5
#2Khalil Abnous (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 56
Last. Mona Alibolandi (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 32
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Exosomes hold great potential for cancer treatment to deliver therapeutics due to its inherent low immunogenicity. Exosomes are biocompatible cell-exocytosed secreted vesicles by most cell types, which can be used to construct novel biomanufacturing platform for drug delivery and cancer therapy. In this study, we implemented nano-sized vesicles which were secreted by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), to encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) through electroporation method (DOX@exosome). DOX was loade...
2 CitationsSource
#1Hongbo Wu (Zhengzhou University)H-Index: 5
#2Xiaoqian Mu (Zhengzhou University)H-Index: 3
Last. Yanqiu Zhao (Zhengzhou University)H-Index: 3
view all 11 authors...
Exosomes are small endogenous membrane vesicles that can mediate cell communication by transferring genetic materials. Based on that, exosomes have always been discussed as a cargo carrier for microRNA (miRNA) transportation. Accumulating data have reported the inhibitory effects of microRNA-193a (miR-193a) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell progression. However, the mechanisms of miR-193a delivery to cancer cells and miR-193a in exosomes have not been explored clearly in NSCLC. Given th...
2 CitationsSource
Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that participate in intercellular communication by transferring biologically active chemical compounds (proteins, microRNA, mRNA, DNA, and others). Due to their small size (diameter 40-100 nm) and high biological compatibility, exosomes are promising delivery tools in personalized therapy. Because artificial exosome synthesis methods are not developed yet, the urgent task is to develop an effective and safe way to obtain exosomes from natural sources. Milk is...
3 CitationsSource
Cited By0