Self-Other Distinction

Published on Jan 1, 2021
· DOI :10.1007/978-3-030-51890-5_5
Tslil Simantov , Michael V. Lombardo56
Estimated H-index: 56
+ 1 AuthorsFlorina Uzefovsky20
Estimated H-index: 20
#1Igor Riečanský (University of Vienna)H-Index: 14
#2Lukas L. Lengersdorff (University of Vienna)H-Index: 2
Last. Claus Lamm (University of Vienna)H-Index: 50
view all 4 authors...
Empathy for another person’s pain and feeling pain oneself seem to be accompanied by similar or shared neural responses. Such shared responses could be achieved by mapping the bodily states of others onto our own bodily representations. We investigated whether sensorimotor neural responses to the pain of others are increased when experimentally reducing perceived bodily distinction between the self and the other. Healthy adult participants watched video clips of the hands of ethnic ingroup or ou...
5 CitationsSource
#1Meng-Chuan Lai (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 51
#2Michael V. Lombardo (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 56
Last. Simon Baron-Cohen (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 196
view all 10 authors...
Prior work has revealed sex/gender-dependent autistic characteristics across behavioural and neural/biological domains. It remains unclear whether and how neural sex/gender differences are related to behavioural sex/gender differences in autism. Here, we examined whether atypical neural responses during mentalizing and self-representation are sex/gender-dependent in autistic adults and explored whether ‘camouflaging’ (acting as if behaviourally neurotypical) is associated with sex/gender-depende...
34 CitationsSource
#1Maria Carrillo (KNAW: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences)H-Index: 10
#2Yinging Han (KNAW: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Christian Keysers (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 62
view all 6 authors...
Summary How do the emotions of others affect us? The human anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responds while experiencing pain in the self and witnessing pain in others, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show the rat ACC (area 24) contains neurons responding when a rat experiences pain as triggered by a laser and while witnessing another rat receive footshocks. Most of these neurons do not respond to a fear-conditioned sound (CS). Deactivating this region redu...
67 CitationsSource
#1Florina Uzefovsky (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 20
#2Richard A.I. Bethlehem (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 15
Last. Simon Baron-Cohen (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 196
view all 13 authors...
Autism is a highly varied and heritable neurodevelopmental condition, and common variants explain approximately 50% of the genetic variance of autism. One of the genes implicated in autism is the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). The current study combined genetic and brain imaging (fMRI) data to examine the moderating effect of genotype on the association between diagnosis and brain activity in response to a test of cognitive empathy. Participants were adolescents (mean age = 14.7 ± 1.7) who were genot...
5 CitationsSource
#1Lize De Coster (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 2
#1Lize De Coster (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 6
Last. Marcel Brass (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 68
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Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with problems in empathy. Recent research suggests that impaired control over self-other overlap based on motor representations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder might underlie these difficulties. In order to investigate the relationship of self-other distinction and empathy for pain in high-functioning autism and matched controls, we manipulated self-other distinction by using a paradigm in which participant...
5 CitationsSource
#1Jon Baio (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 18
#2Lisa D. Wiggins (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 21
Last. Nicole F. Dowling (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 31
view all 26 authors...
Problem/condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period covered 2014. Description of system The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). A...
1,549 CitationsSource
#1Michaela Pfundmair (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 9
#2Anne Rimpel (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 2
Last. Clarissa Zwarg (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 2
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Previous research has shown an inconsistent pattern of how oxytocin (OT) affects the distinction between self and others: whereas one line of studies has revealed that OT blurs the self-other distinction, other studies have not. In an attempt to solve these inconsistencies, we hypothesized that OT blurs the boundary between self and other implicitly but not explicitly. To test this assumption, we used two experimental approaches. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, t...
6 CitationsSource
#1Christian Keysers (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 62
#2Valeria Gazzola (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 36
Abstract In this review, we summarize the results of two decades of human neuroimaging studies on the neural basis of our empathy for the actions, sensations, and emotions of others. We show how the discovery of mirror neurons in monkeys has set the conceptual stage for interpreting the observation that witnessing the sensations and emotions of others activates brain regions involved in our own sensations and emotions. We review a number of situational factors that are known to influence the mag...
#1Eliane DeschrijverH-Index: 8
#2Jan R. Wiersema (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 20
Last. Marcel BrassH-Index: 68
view all 3 authors...
: Next to social problems, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often report severe sensory difficulties. Altered processing of touch is however a stronger mediator of social symptoms' severity than altered processing of for instance vision or audition. Why is this the case? We reasoned that sensory difficulties may be linked to social problems in ASD through insufficient self-other distinction centred on touch. We investigated by means of EEG whether the brain of adults with ASD adeq...
10 CitationsSource
#1Bérangère Thirioux (Collège de France)H-Index: 9
#2Moritz Wehrmann (Bauhaus University, Weimar)H-Index: 3
Last. Alain Berthoz (Collège de France)H-Index: 90
view all 5 authors...
Looking at our face in a mirror is one of the strongest phenomenological experiences of the Self in which we need to identify the face as reflected in the mirror as belonging to us. Recent behavioural and neuroimaging studies reported that self-face identification not only relies upon visual-mnemonic representation of one’s own face but also upon continuous updating and integration of visuo-tactile signals. Therefore, bodily self-consciousness plays a major role in self-face identification, with...
5 CitationsSource
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