The Implicit Association Test at age 20: What is known and what is not known about implicit bias

Published on Apr 7, 2020
· DOI :10.31234/OSF.IO/BF97C
Anthony G. Greenwald111
Estimated H-index: 111
Brendl M1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 21 AuthorsReinout W. Wiers87
Estimated H-index: 87
#1Kristen P. Lindgren (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 22
#2Scott A. Baldwin (BYU: Brigham Young University)H-Index: 34
Last. Clayton Neighbors (UH: University of Houston)H-Index: 83
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Aims: Implicit measures of alcohol associations (i.e. measures designed to assess associations that are fast/reflexive/impulsive) have received substantial research attention. Alcohol associations related to the self (drinking identity), the effects of alcohol (alcohol excite) and appetitive inclinations (alcohol approach) have been found to predict drinking cross-sectionally and over time. A critical next step in this line of research and the goal of this study is to evaluate whether increases ...
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#1Eric Hehman (RyeU: Ryerson University)H-Index: 23
#2Jessica Kay Flake (York University)H-Index: 14
Last. Jimmy Calanchini (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 10
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Due to a lack of data, the demographic and psychological factors associated with lethal force by police officers have remained insufficiently explored. We develop the first predictive models of lethal force by integrating crowd-sourced and fact-checked lethal force databases with regional demographics and measures of geolocated implicit and explicit racial biases collected from 2,156,053 residents across the United States. Results indicate that only the implicit racial prejudices and stereotypes...
61 CitationsSource
#1Anthony G. Greenwald (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 111
#2Mahzarin R. Banaji (Harvard University)H-Index: 94
: In the 1970s, memory researchers converged on interesting phenomena observed in Korsakoff-syndrome amnesic patients. These patients' performances on difficult tasks were reliably improved by practice sessions from which they could recall nothing. Related findings of indirect memory effects in college students triggered wide attention to phenomena that, in 1985, were first identified as implicit memory. Within a decade, the indirect measurement methods of implicit memory research had spread to ...
63 CitationsSource
#1B. Keith Payne (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 47
#2Heidi A. Vuletich (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 5
Last. Kristjen B. Lundberg (UR: University of Richmond)H-Index: 11
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ABSTRACTAs public awareness of implicit bias has grown in recent years, studies have raised important new questions about the nature of implicit bias effects. First, implicit biases are widespread and robust on average, yet are unstable across a few weeks. Second, young children display implicit biases indistinguishable from those of adults, which suggests to many that implicit biases are learned early. Yet, if implicit biases are unstable over weeks, how can they be stable for decades? Third, m...
112 CitationsSource
#1Jennifer L. HowellH-Index: 17
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Last. Kate A. RatliffH-Index: 16
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We investigated whether learning that one is biased predicts defensive reactions to feedback on Implicit Association Tests (IATs; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998). In an archival data set (Study 1, N = 219,426) and in an online experiment (Study 2, N = 1,225), people responded most defensively to feedback when: (a) their implicit and explicit attitudes were more discrepant than congruent, (b) their implicit attitudes aligned more with societal bias than did their explicit attitudes (e.g., a p...
10 CitationsSource
#1Cornelia WrzusH-Index: 21
#2Boris EgloffH-Index: 56
Last. Michaela Riediger (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 26
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: Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive...
4 CitationsSource
#1Jacob Orchard (BYU: Brigham Young University)H-Index: 1
#2Joseph Price (BYU: Brigham Young University)H-Index: 26
Black mothers are 60 percent more likely than white mothers to have preterm births and twice as likely to have a baby with low birth weight. We examine whether these black-white gaps in birth outcomes are larger in counties with higher levels of racial prejudice.
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#1Bruno Verschuere (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 45
#2Bennett Kleinberg (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 13
ABSTRACTBy assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772–780. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x] aims to determine which of two contrasting statements is true. To efficiently run well-powered aIAT experiments, we propose a web-based aIAT (web-aIAT). Experiment 1 (n = 52...
5 CitationsSource
#1Katerina Bezrukova (UB: University at Buffalo)H-Index: 16
#2Chester S. Spell (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 18
Last. Karen A. Jehn (Melbourne Business School)H-Index: 55
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: This meta-analysis of 260 independent samples assessed the effects of diversity training on 4 training outcomes over time and across characteristics of training context, design, and participants. Models from the training literature and psychological theory on diversity were used to generate theory-driven predictions. The results revealed an overall effect size (Hedges g) of .38 with the largest effect being for reactions to training and cognitive learning; smaller effects were found for behavi...
136 CitationsSource
#1Calvin K. Lai (Harvard University)H-Index: 14
#2Allison L. Skinner (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 9
Last. Brian A. Nosek (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 93
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Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejud...
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#1Rebecca L. Monk (Edge Hill University)H-Index: 11
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Last. Derek Heim (Edge Hill University)H-Index: 22
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To systematically develop and test stimuli for inclusion within the revised Alcohol Expectancy Task (rAET)-a pictographic assessment of alcohol-related beliefs.Using a UK adult sample of regular so...
#1Jeremías David Tosi (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)H-Index: 5
#2Narelle Haworth (QUT: Queensland University of Technology)H-Index: 28
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Abstract Dual-Process Models of Attitudes (DPMA) have provided new concepts and methods for attitude-behavior research in the field of transportation. Notwithstanding, there is a lack of critical reviews on this topic; leaving researchers with an unclear picture of the key issues to consider in developing new research. This paper reviews previous studies on DPMA in traffic and transportation research. A systematic review of English and non-English language articles using Transport Research Inter...