Sleep Disturbances Associated with Neurological Autoimmunity

Published on Jan 1, 2021in Neurotherapeutics6.035
· DOI :10.1007/S13311-021-01020-X
Michelle F. Devine3
Estimated H-index: 3
Michelle F Devine3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ -1 AuthorsErik K. St. Louis30
Estimated H-index: 30
Associations between sleep disorders and neurological autoimmunity have been notably expanding recently. Potential immune-mediated etiopathogenesis has been proposed for various sleep disorders including narcolepsy, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and Morvan syndrome. Sleep manifestations are also common in various autoimmune neurological syndromes, but may be underestimated as overriding presenting (and potentially dangerous) neurological symptoms often require more urgent attention. Even so, sleep dysfunction has been described with various neural-specific antibody biomarkers, including IgLON5; leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1); contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2); N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor; Ma2; dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX); alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R); anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type-1 (ANNA-1, i.e., Hu); anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type-2 (ANNA-2, i.e., Ri); gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B-receptor (GABA-B-R); metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5); and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Given potentially distinctive findings, it is possible that sleep testing could potentially provide objective biomarkers (polysomnography, quantitative muscle activity during REM sleep, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1) to support an autoimmune diagnosis, monitor therapeutic response, or disease progression/relapse. However, more comprehensive characterization of sleep manifestations is needed to better understand the underlying sleep disruption with neurological autoimmunity.
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