Delivery of Orally Administered Digestible Antibodies Using Nanoparticles.

Published on Mar 25, 2021in International Journal of Molecular Sciences4.556
· DOI :10.3390/IJMS22073349
Oral administration of medications is highly preferred in healthcare owing to its simplicity and convenience; however, problems of drug membrane permeability can arise with any administration method in drug discovery and development. In particular, commonly used monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs are directly injected through intravenous or subcutaneous routes across physical barriers such as the cell membrane, including the epithelium and endothelium. However, intravenous administration has disadvantages such as pain, discomfort, and stress. Oral administration is an ideal route for mAbs. Nonetheless, proteolysis and denaturation, in addition to membrane impermeability, pose serious challenges in delivering peroral mAbs to the systemic circulation, biologically, through enzymatic and acidic blocks and, physically, through the small intestinal epithelium barrier. A number of clinical trials have been performed using oral mAbs for the local treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, some of which have adopted capsules or tablets as formulations. Surprisingly, no oral mAbs have been approved clinically. An enteric nanodelivery system can protect cargos from proteolysis and denaturation. Moreover, mAb cargos released in the small intestine may be delivered to the systemic circulation across the intestinal epithelium through receptor-mediated transcytosis. Oral Abs in milk are transported by neonatal Fc receptors to the systemic circulation in neonates. Thus, well-designed approaches can establish oral mAb delivery. In this review, I will introduce the implementation and possibility of delivering orally administered mAbs with or without nanoparticles not only to the local gastrointestinal tract but also to the systemic circulation.
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