Special issue: emerging chemical terrorism threats.

Published on Mar 17, 2021in Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods2.295
· DOI :10.1080/15376516.2021.1904472
Robert P. Casillas20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
Neera Tewari-Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MSU: Michigan State University),
Joshua P. Gray20
Estimated H-index: 20
(United States Coast Guard Academy)
Sources
Abstract
Chemical exposure emergencies posing a serious threat to the health and survival of civilians can be caused by terrorism events or industrial accidents. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) deve...
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2014
1 Author (Tom A. Coburn)
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: Chlorine gas is one of the highly produced chemicals in the USA and around the world. Chlorine gas has several uses in water purification, sanitation, and industrial applications; however, it is a toxic inhalation hazard agent. Inhalation of chlorine gas, based on the concentration and duration of the exposure, causes a spectrum of symptoms, including but not limited to lacrimation, rhinorrhea, bronchospasm, cough, dyspnea, acute lung injury, death, and survivors develop signs of pulmonary fib...
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Abstract This chapter discusses the military and paramilitary use of acute cyanide poisoning as a weapon. Cyanide has been known as a poison since antiquity. While largely ineffective as a military weapon, cyanide has been used, with modest success, as a tool of assassination. During World War II, cyanide pesticide formulations were used extremely effectively as tools of mass murder. Cyanide is a mitochondrial toxin that impairs cellular respiration, causing morbidity or mortality within a short...
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Last. Michael P. Shakarjian (RMIT: RMIT University)H-Index: 12
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Abstract Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (tetramine, TETS, TMDT) is a seizure-producing neurotoxic chemical formed by the condensation of sulfamide and formaldehyde. Serendipitously discovered through an occupational exposure in 1949, it was promoted as a rodenticide but later banned worldwide due to its danger to human health. However, exceptional activity of the agent against rodent pests resulted in its clandestine manufacture with large numbers of inadvertent, intentional, and mass poisonings...
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#1David A. Jett (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 16
#2Shardell M. Spriggs (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 1
Abstract This special issue will describe cutting-edge translational research on the development of safe and effective therapeutics for treating exposure to toxic chemical threat agents that target the nervous system. These studies are supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program. Chemical threats include chemical warfare agents, pesticides and other toxic chemicals whose primary mode of action is targeted within the nervous s...
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AbstractPhosgene is classified as a chemical warfare agent, yet data on its short-duration high concentration toxicity in a nose-only exposure rat model is sparse and inconsistent. Hence, an exposu...
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Pesticides are unique environmental contaminants that are specifically introduced into the environment to control pests, often by killing them. Although pesticide application serves many important purposes, including protection against crop loss and against vector-borne diseases, there are significant concerns over the potential toxic effects of pesticides to non-target organisms, including humans. In many cases, the molecular target of a pesticide is shared by non-target species, leading to the...
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Introduction Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is found in various settings. Reports of chemical suicide, where individuals have combined readily available household chemicals to produce lethal concentrations of H2S, have demonstrated that H2S is easily produced. Governmental agencies have warned of potential threats of use of H2S for a chemical attack, but currently there are no FDA-approved antidotes for H2S. An ideal antidote would be one that is effective in small volume, readily available, safe, and c...
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Abstract Phosgene Oxime (CX, Cl 2 CNOH), a halogenated oxime, is a potent chemical weapon that causes immediate acute injury and systemic effects. CX, grouped together with vesicating agents, is an urticant or nettle agent with highly volatile, reactive, corrosive, and irritating vapor, and has considerably different chemical properties and toxicity compared to other vesicants. CX is absorbed quickly through clothing with faster cutaneous penetration compared to other vesicating agents causing i...
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#1P. Govier (Cardiff University)H-Index: 1
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Abstract Introduction Halogen pulmonary irritants (HPIs) are volatile liquids that directly damage the respiratory mucosa. Chlorine is readily available in large volumes as an industrial chemical and has a significant potential for accidental or deliberate release. We conducted a systematic review to determine the clinical features; treatment and long-term sequelae of civilian chlorine gas exposure. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Revi...
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