Fabrication and Characterisation of a Photo-Responsive, Injectable Nanosystem for Sustained Delivery of Macromolecules.

Published on Mar 25, 2021in International Journal of Molecular Sciences4.556
· DOI :10.3390/IJMS22073359
Pakama Mahlumba1
Estimated H-index: 1
Pradeep Kumar31
Estimated H-index: 31
+ 3 AuthorsYahya E. Choonara34
Estimated H-index: 34
The demand for biodegradable sustained release carriers with minimally invasive and less frequent administration properties for therapeutic proteins and peptides has increased over the years. The purpose of achieving sustained minimally invasive and site-specific delivery of macromolecules led to the investigation of a photo-responsive delivery system. This research explored a biodegradable prolamin, zein, modified with an azo dye (DHAB) to synthesize photo-responsive azoprolamin (AZP) nanospheres loaded with Immunoglobulin G (IgG). AZP nanospheres were incorporated in a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel to develop a novel injectable photo-responsive nanosystem (HA-NSP) as a potential approach for the treatment of chorio-retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. AZP nanospheres were prepared via coacervation technique, dispersed in HA hydrogel and characterised via infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Size and morphology were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV spectroscopy for photo-responsiveness. Rheological properties and injectability were investigated, as well as cytotoxicity effect on HRPE cell lines. Particle size obtained was <200 nm and photo-responsiveness to UV = 365 nm by decreasing particle diameter to 94 nm was confirmed by DLS. Encapsulation efficiency of the optimised nanospheres was 85% and IgG was released over 32 days up to 60%. Injectability of HA-NSP was confirmed with maximum force 10 N required and shear-thinning behaviour observed in rheology studies. In vitro cell cytotoxicity effect of both NSPs and HA-NSP showed non-cytotoxicity with relative cell viability of ≥80%. A biocompatible, biodegradable injectable photo-responsive nanosystem for sustained release of macromolecular IgG was successfully developed.
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