Disinfection byproducts in potable reuse

Published on Jan 1, 2021
· DOI :10.1016/BS.COAC.2021.01.005
Wolfgang Gernjak52
Estimated H-index: 52
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Abstract
References84
Newest
#1Vijay Sundaram (Stantec)H-Index: 4
#2Krishna R. Pagilla (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)H-Index: 29
Last. Zia BukhariH-Index: 17
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Recovering and reusing treated wastewater effluent is a sustainable and cost-effective practice for addressing global water sustainability. To date, most potable reuse advanced water treatment (AWT) solutions are based on reverse osmosis (RO), which generates a continuous reject stream of concentrated brine waste. Ozone-biofiltration based solutions have been investigated as a potential alternative for RO. However, implementation of ozone-biofiltration for potable reuse projects around ...
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#1Jiaming Lily Shi (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 1
#2Daniel L. McCurry (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 13
Potable reuse of wastewater is expanding, and ozonation for water reuse is becoming more common, either as a preoxidant before membranes or as part of ozone/biological activated carbon (O3/BAC) systems. However, previous research has demonstrated that ozone drastically increases the formation potential of genotoxic halonitromethanes (HNMs), including during O3/BAC. Chloropicrin, the most common HNM, is synthesized by chlorinating nitromethane, suggesting that nitromethane may be the immediate pr...
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#1Jennifer HooperH-Index: 2
#2Denise FunkH-Index: 2
Last. Ching-Hua Huang (Georgia Institute of Technology)H-Index: 52
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Pilot testing of direct potable reuse (DPR) using multi-stage ozone and biological filtration as an alternative treatment train without reverse osmosis (RO) was investigated. This study examined four blending ratios of advanced treated reclaimed water from the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWH WRC) in Gwinnett County, Georgia, combined with the existing drinking water treatment plant raw water supply, Lake Lanier, for potable water production. Baseline testing with 100 percent (...
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#1Zhong Zhang (Stanford University)H-Index: 6
#2Yi-Hsueh Chuang (Stanford University)H-Index: 10
Last. William A. Mitch (Stanford University)H-Index: 57
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Advanced oxidation using UV/free chlorine and UV/chloramines are being considered as alternatives to UV/H2O2 for treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) permeate in treatment trains for the potable reuse of municipal wastewater. This pilot-scale comparison of the three advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) evaluated three factors important for selecting among these alternatives. First, the study characterized the speciation of oxidants serving as the source of radicals within the AOPs to facili...
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#1Yi-Hsueh Chuang (Stanford University)H-Index: 10
#2Aleksandra Szczuka (Stanford University)H-Index: 9
Last. William A. Mitch (Stanford University)H-Index: 57
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Ozone and biological activated carbon (O3/BAC) is being considered as an alternative advanced treatment process to microfiltration and reverse osmosis (MF/RO) for the potable reuse of municipal wastewater. Similarly, the UV/free chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) is being considered as an alternative to the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) AOP. This study compared the performance of these alternative treatment processes for controlling N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reacti...
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#1Fernanda Bacaro (UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)H-Index: 2
#2Eric R.V. Dickenson (Southern Nevada Water Authority)H-Index: 25
Last. Daniel Gerrity (UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)H-Index: 25
view all 4 authors...
Ozone and chloramines are critically important for achieving stringent public health criteria and operational water quality objectives in potable reuse treatment trains, but these disinfectants are also linked to the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In the current study, a pilot-scale ozone-biofiltration system was used to treat membrane bioreactor (MBR) filtrate from a full-scale water reclamation facility. Experiments were designed to assess the roles of preoxidation, empty bed cont...
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#1Emily L. Marron (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 4
#2William A. MitchH-Index: 57
Last. David L. Sedlak (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
ConspectusIn response to water scarcity and an increased recognition of the risks associated with the presence of chemical contaminants, environmental engineers have developed advanced water treatment systems that are capable of converting municipal wastewater effluent into drinking water. This practice, which is referred to as potable water reuse, typically relies upon reverse osmosis (RO) treatment followed by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These t...
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#1Takahiro Fujioka (Nagasaki University)H-Index: 20
#2Hitoshi Kodamatani (Kadai: Kagoshima University)H-Index: 18
Last. Takuji Shintani (Kobe University)H-Index: 19
view all 4 authors...
Reliable and adequate removal of small and uncharged trace organic chemicals, particularly N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) that is carcinogenic and known to occur in treated effluent, is essential for implementing direct potable water use. This study provides new insights to explain the low rejection of NDMA and other N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes by examining the role of molecular size and polarity in their molecular structure. The results show that molecular weight is not a su...
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#1Caitlin M. Glover (Southern Nevada Water Authority)H-Index: 7
#2Edgard M. Verdugo (Southern Nevada Water Authority)H-Index: 2
Last. Eric R.V. Dickenson (Southern Nevada Water Authority)H-Index: 25
view all 4 authors...
Abstract As potable reuse guidelines and regulations continue to develop, the presence of N-nitrosamines is a primary concern because of their associated health concerns. In this study, bench-, pilot-, and full-scale tests were conducted to focus on the occurrence and treatment of N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) in United States (U.S.) potable reuse systems. Out of twelve U.S. wastewater effluents collected, ambient NMOR was detected in eleven (average = 20 ± 18 ng/L); in contrast, only two of the th...
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#1Kirin E. Furst (Stanford University)H-Index: 4
#2Brian M. PecsonH-Index: 17
Last. William A. Mitch (Stanford University)H-Index: 57
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Treatment of fully nitrified municipal wastewater effluents with chlorine followed by chloramines (i.e., sequential chlorine disinfection) upstream of advanced treatment trains can contribute pathogen inactivation credits for potable reuse while leaving a chloramine residual to control biofouling on membrane units in the advanced treatment train. However, free chlorine exposures must be optimized to maximize pathogen inactivation while minimizing the formation of disinfection byproducts...
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Cited By1
Newest
#1Hai Duc Minh Tran (Nagasaki University)H-Index: 2
#2Sandrine Boivin (Nagasaki University)H-Index: 4
Last. Takahiro Fujioka (Nagasaki University)H-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
The ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a powerful technology for removing pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from water. AOP in potable water reuse has been predominantly based on traditional low-pressure mercury (LP-Hg) lamps at 254 nm wavelength, supplemented by hydrogen peroxide addition. In this review, we assessed the potential of unconventional UV wavelengths (UV-B, 280-315 nm and UV-C, 100-280 nm) compared to conventional one (254...
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