Anisotropic stress-softening effect on fast dynamic crack in filler-reinforced elastomers

Published on Apr 1, 2021in Mechanics of Materials3.266
路 DOI :10.1016/J.MECHMAT.2021.103786
Thanh-Tam Mai7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Kyoto Institute of Technology),
Kenichiro Okuno2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Bridgestone)
+ 1 AuthorsKenji Urayama37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Kyoto Institute of Technology)
Source
Abstract
Abstract Deformation of filler-reinforced elastomers is accompanied by a complex internal damage due to stress softening (Mullins effect). The crack growth behavior of filler-reinforced elastomers is made significantly complex by the occurrence of a simultaneous directional stress softening. The influences of the directional stress softening on fast crack propagation normal to the pre-stretching direction are revealed by the comparison using three types of specimens: (I) a low-filled elastomer with almost no stress softening, (II) a pristine highly filled elastomer with a pronounced stress-softening feature, and (III) an elastomer obtained by imposing before uniaxial loading鈥搖nloading cycles with a large maximum stretch of specimen (II). The previous directional softening causes a reduction in the threshold tearing energy for velocity transition, and an increase in local strain in the softening direction. In contrast, the previous directional softening has no appreciable effect on the tearing energy dependence of velocity, crack-tip shape, strain field behind the crack-tip, and the strain singularity near the crack-tip.
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References40
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#2Michel Coret (脡cole centrale de Nantes)H-Index: 20
Last. F. Le LayH-Index: 1
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Crack speed prediction in elastomer membranes under large strain (more than 150%) remains a delicate question which necessitates coupled experimental-theoretical investigations. In order to compare experimental results with theoretical approaches but also to improve the understanding of dynamic crack propagation in soft materials, a crucial step is the measurement and analysis of kinematic and energetic fields in the material configuration during dynamic fracture. In this way, the proposed set-u...
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#1Thanh-Tam Mai (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Kenichiro Okuno (Bridgestone)H-Index: 2
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
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We characterize the crack-tip strain field in the high-speed (supershear) crack in the elastomers propagating faster than the shear wave speed of sound (Cs). The dependence of steady-state crack ve...
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#1Matthias WundeH-Index: 5
#2J. PlaggeH-Index: 7
Last. Manfred Kl眉ppelH-Index: 32
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Abstract A recently developed micromechanical model of stress softening and hysteresis of filled rubber is used to calculate the energy density- and stress distribution around the crack tip for a given displacement field, which is determined by digital image correlation. This allows for a quantitative evaluation of stress-softening influences on the J-Integral, J1. In addition, the gradients of stress, strain and energy close to the crack tip are evaluated and compared to predictions of purely e...
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#1Thanh-Tam Mai (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Takahiro Matsuda (Hokkaido University)H-Index: 8
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
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Anisotropy of strain-induced internal damage in tough double network (DN) hydrogels is characterized by a sequence of two tensile experiments. Firstly, the virgin DN gels are subjected to a single biaxial loading鈥搖nloading cycle using various combinations of the two maximum strains 位x,m and 位y,m in the x- and y-directions (位x,m 鈮 位y,m). Secondly, the rectangular subsamples, which are cut out from the unloaded specimens so that the long axis can have an angle (胃) relative to the larger pre-strain...
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#1Yuan Qi (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 6
#2Julien Caillard (Michelin)H-Index: 11
Last. Rong Long (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 30
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Abstract The fracture toughness of soft elastomers or gels can be substantially enhanced by introducing various energy dissipation mechanisms into the bulk material. Bulk dissipation, manifested in the hysteresis of loading-unloading cycles, enables the formation of a dissipation zone around the crack tip that consumes most of the energy provided by the external loading to drive crack propagation, effectively increasing the fracture toughness. An in-depth understanding on how bulk dissipation co...
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#1Thanh-Tam Mai (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Takahiro MatsudaH-Index: 8
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
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The cyclic stretching measurements in various geometries including uniaxial, planar, unequal, and equal biaxial extension reveal the distinctive features of the internal fracture in the double network (DN) hydrogels with high toughness, which are composed of the rigid and brittle first network and the soft and ductile second network. The initial modulus, residual strain after unloading, dissipated energy (D), dissipation factor (螖; the ratio of D to input strain energy), and the ultimate elongat...
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#2Daniel Juhre (Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)H-Index: 8
Last. Ulrich GieseH-Index: 4
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Abstract For carbon black reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber (EPDM) fracture mechanics investigations by using a Single Edge Notched Tension sample (SENT) are presented. Filled elastomers under cyclic loading typically display inelastic effects like permanent set, strong nonlinear S-shaped stress-strain behaviour and stress induced softening (discontinuous damage) as well as cyclic softening (continuous damage) better known as Mullins effect. These unique properties give this mat...
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#1Thanh-Tam Mai (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Yoshihiro Morishita (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 8
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
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Abstract Anisotropy induced by stress-softening phenomena (Mullins effect) in filled elastomers has been intensively investigated using various stretching modes for pre-stretching. A sequence of two tensile experiments was conducted for the evaluation of the anisotropy: firstly the virgin specimens were pre-stretched by several modes, i.e., uniaxial, planar, unequal-biaxial and equibiaxial extensions, with various degrees of strain; secondly, the rectangular subsamples, which were cut out from t...
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#1Thanh-Tam Mai (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Yoshihiro Morishita (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 8
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
Stretching experiments with various geometries are performed using a custom-built tensile tester to reveal the intriguing features of the mechanical softening phenomena of filled elastomers in loading鈥搖nloading cycles, commonly known as the Mullins effect. The dissipated energy (D), residual strain (er), and dissipation factor (螖; the ratio of D to input strain energy) in the loading鈥搖nloading cycles are evaluated as a function of the maximum stretch in cyclic loading (位m) using three types of e...
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#1Yoshihiro Morishita (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 8
#2Katsuhiko Tsunoda (Bridgestone)H-Index: 5
Last. Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
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Abstract The velocity transition in crack-growth dynamics and the accompanying changes in crack tip shapes are investigated for the elastomers composed of styrene-butadiene rubber and silica filler (SBR/SI). The concentrations of filler and cross-link ( 蠒 f and c x , respectively), and temperature ( T ) are extensively varied in order to change the degree of nonlinearity in elasticity of the elastomers. The shapes of the crack tip are characterized by three parameters, i.e., the deviation 未 from...
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Cited By3
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#1Miaomiao QianH-Index: 2
Last. Yanchao Zhu (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 21
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Two factors, the crosslinking degree of the matrix (谓) and the size of the filler (Sz), have significant impact on the Mullins effect of filled elastomers. Herein, the result. of the two factors on Mullins effect is systematically investigated by adjusting the crosslinking degree of the matrix via adding maleic anhydride into a rubber matrix and controlling the particle size of the filler via ball milling. The dissipation ratios (the ratio of energy dissipation to input strain energy) of differe...
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#1Thanh-Tam Mai (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 7
#2Kenji Urayama (Kyoto Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
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