Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: II. Intervention Effectiveness Across Time

Published on Jun 16, 2016in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
· DOI :10.1037/XGE0000179
Calvin K. Lai14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Harvard University),
Allison L. Skinner9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 26 AuthorsBrian A. Nosek93
Estimated H-index: 93
(UVA: University of Virginia)
Sources
Abstract
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
7,143 Citations
294 Citations
4,064 Citations
References65
Newest
#1Félix Neto (University of Porto)H-Index: 37
#2Maria da Conceição Pinto (University of Porto)H-Index: 8
Last. Etienne MulletH-Index: 41
view all 3 authors...
The study examined the impact of a cross-cultural musical programme on young Portuguese adolescents’ anti-dark-skin prejudice. A sample of 229 sixth-grade pupils who attended public schools in the area of Lisbon, Portugal, were presented with the Implicit Association Test (IAT) – an instrument that measures the strength with which dark-skinned faces or light-skinned faces are associated with attributes that can be considered as negative or positive, and with a test measuring explicit anti-dark-s...
18 CitationsSource
#1Xiaoqing Hu (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 17
#2James W. Antony (Princeton University)H-Index: 12
Last. Ken A. Paller (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 65
view all 6 authors...
Although people may endorse egalitarianism and tolerance, social biases can remain operative and drive harmful actions in an unconscious manner. Here, we investigated training to reduce implicit racial and gender bias. Forty participants processed counterstereotype information paired with one sound for each type of bias. Biases were reduced immediately after training. During subsequent slow-wave sleep, one sound was unobtrusively presented to each participant, repeatedly, to reactivate one type ...
61 CitationsSource
#1Andrew Scott Baron (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 19
Implicit attitudes form in the 1st years of life and change little across development. By age 6, children's implicit intergroup attitudes are sensitive to the cultural standing of their group relative to other groups in their milieu, such that individuals prefer their own group less when the comparison group is of higher cultural standing. In this article, I consider the claim that the stability of the magnitude of implicit attitudes across development reflects the absence of meaningful developm...
72 CitationsSource
#1James R. Rae (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 7
#2Anna-Kaisa Newheiser (SUNY: State University of New York System)H-Index: 11
Last. Kristina R. Olson (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 32
view all 3 authors...
The industrialized world is becoming more ethnically diverse. Research in several disciplines has suggested that exposure to racial out-groups may be associated with more positive and more negative intergroup attitudes. Given that U.S. states are often at the center of debate regarding diversity-related public policy, we examined how exposure to out-groups is associated with state-level implicit and explicit race bias among White and Black Americans. We found that larger proportions of Black res...
40 CitationsSource
#1Lara Maister (RHUL: Royal Holloway, University of London)H-Index: 15
#2Mel Slater (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 98
Last. Manos Tsakiris (RHUL: Royal Holloway, University of London)H-Index: 52
view all 4 authors...
Research on stereotypes demonstrates how existing prejudice affects the way we process outgroups. Recent studies have considered whether it is possible to change our implicit social bias by experimentally changing the relationship between the self and outgroups. In a number of experimental studies, participants have been exposed to bodily illusions that induced ownership over a body different to their own with respect to gender, age, or race. Ownership of an outgroup body has been found to be as...
196 CitationsSource
#1Erin Frey (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
#2Todd Rogers (Harvard University)H-Index: 28
Interventions intended to change people’s behavior are ubiquitous in modern society. Some interventions produce changes in behavior that persist even after the interventions are discontinued, while...
34 CitationsSource
#1Yoav Bar-Anan (BGU: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)H-Index: 23
#2Brian A. Nosek (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 93
We compared the psychometric qualities of seven indirect attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N=23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with indirect and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the ...
148 CitationsSource
#1Jimmy Calanchini (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 10
#2Jeffrey W. Sherman (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 49
Last. Calvin K. Lai (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 14
view all 4 authors...
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was designed to measure automatically activated attitudinal associations, free of the influence of processes that affect their expression. Subsequent research has shown that IAT performance also is influenced by non-associative processes, but the extent to which these non-associative processes are content-specific or if they operate similarly regardless of the attitude being measured has largely gone unexamined. In the current research, participants completed ...
25 CitationsSource
#1Calvin K. Lai (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 14
#2Maddalena Marini (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)H-Index: 8
Last. Brian A. Nosek (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 93
view all 24 authors...
Many methods for reducing implicit prejudice have been identified, but little is known about their relative effectiveness. We held a research contest to experimentally compare interventions for reducing the expression of implicit racial prejudice. Teams submitted 17 interventions that were tested an average of 3.70 times each in 4 studies (total N = 17,021), with rules for revising interventions between studies. Eight of 17 interventions were effective at reducing implicit preferences for Whites...
294 CitationsSource
#1Yarrow Dunham (Yale University)H-Index: 25
#2Mahesh Srinivasan (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 10
Last. David Barner (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 29
view all 4 authors...
Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results ...
27 CitationsSource
Cited By192
Newest
#1Kimberly C. Doell (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 5
#2Philip Pärnamets (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 7
Last. Jay J. Van Bavel (Center for Neural Science)H-Index: 39
view all 5 authors...
Partisan and ideological identities are a consistent barrier to the adoption of climate change mitigation policies, especially in countries where fossil fuel reliance is the highest. We review how understanding collective cognition may help overcome such barriers by changing norms, promoting cooperation, downplaying partisan identities, or leveraging other identities to promote pro-climate change beliefs and behaviors. We also highlight several gaps in the literature and lay out a brief roadmap ...
Source
#1Xi Shen (Cornell University)H-Index: 3
#2Melissa J. Ferguson (Cornell University)H-Index: 30
Abstract null null Previous research suggests that the influence of facial trustworthiness is irresistible in the process of making judgments even when relevant behavioral information is available. This leaves the possibility that people's evaluations of others, especially implicit evaluations, might be determined by facial appearances alone, despite the lack of evidence showing the accuracy of inferences made from faces. In this paper, however, we identified properties of behavioral information...
Source
#1Bennett Callaghan (CUNY: City University of New York)H-Index: 5
#2Leilah Harouni (Yale University)H-Index: 1
Last. Jennifer A. Richeson (Yale University)H-Index: 57
view all 5 authors...
Americans remain unaware of the magnitude of economic inequality in the nation and the degree to which it is patterned by race. We exposed a community sample of respondents to one of three interventions designed to promote a more realistic understanding of the Black-White wealth gap. The interventions conformed to recommendations in messaging about racial inequality drawn from the social sciences yet differed in how they highlighted data-based trends in Black-White wealth inequality, a single pe...
Source
#1Sheen S. Levine (UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)H-Index: 10
#2Charlotte Reypens (UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)H-Index: 2
Last. David Stark (Warw.: University of Warwick)H-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
Source
#1Anthony G. Greenwald (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 111
#2Miguel Brendl (University of Basel)
Last. Sean Joseph Hughes (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 18
view all 22 authors...
Interest in unintended discrimination that can result from implicit attitudes and stereotypes (implicit biases) has stimulated many research investigations. Much of this research has used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure association strengths that are presumed to underlie implicit biases. It had been more than a decade since the last published treatment of recommended best practices for research using IAT measures. After an initial draft by the first author, and continuing through ...
Source
Abstract null null The last decade has seen a rush to address the causes and consequences of bias in applied contexts across the world. When and why might these initiatives promote attitudes and behavior that align with egalitarian goals? A common assumption is that increasing awareness of bias can motivate control over prejudiced responding. However, learning that one's actions are biased is threatening, and often motivates a range of self-protective responses to buffer that threat. In the curr...
Source
#1Craig Bennell (Carleton University)H-Index: 22
#2Geoffrey P. Alpert (Griffith University)H-Index: 48
Last. Michael D. White (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 33
view all 13 authors...
2 CitationsSource
#1B. Keith Payne (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 47
#2Jason W. Hannay (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 1
Implicit bias refers to automatically evoked mental associations about social groups. The idea has been influential across the social sciences as a way to explain persistent racial disparities amid changing self-report attitudes. Most research has treated implicit bias as an individual attitude. However, evidence suggests that it is neither a stable individual difference nor a strong correlate of individual behavior. Moreover, the individual-focused approach can lead researchers to neglect syste...
1 CitationsSource
#1Simone Mattavelli (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 5
#2Juliette Richetin (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 17
Last. Marco Perugini (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 58
view all 3 authors...
In many daily life situations, eating behaviour manifests itself under conditions of automaticity. Associative learning procedures have proven reliable to change food items’ evaluations inferred from performances in indirect tasks, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Targeting two alternative food brands, we investigated the impact of the Self-Referencing (SR) task on IAT performances measured immediately after the manipulation and one week later. Capitalizing on the structural features...
Source