Temporal Trends of Infective Endocarditis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, Between 1970 and 2018: A Population-Based Analysis.
Published on Jan 27, 2021in Open Forum Infectious Diseases3.656
· DOI :10.1093/OFID/OFAB038
Background A population-based study of infective endocarditis (IE) in Olmsted County, Minnesota, provides a unique opportunity to define temporal and seasonal variations in IE incidence over an extended time period. Methods This was a population-based review of all adults (≥18 years) residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with definite or possible IE using the Rochester Epidemiology Project from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2018. Poisson regression was used to characterize the trends in IE incidence; models were fitted with age, sex, calendar time, and season, allowing for nonlinearity and nonadditivity of their effects. Results Overall, 269 cases of IE were identified over a 49-year study period. The median age of IE cases was 67.2 years, and 33.8% were female. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of IE was 7.9 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 7.0-8.9), with corresponding rates of 2.4, 2.4, 0.9, and 0.7 per 100 000 person-years for Staphylococcus aureus, viridans group streptococci (VGS), Enterococcus species, and coagulase-negative staphylococci IE, respectively. Temporal trends varied by age, sex, and season, but on average IE incidence increased over time (P = .021). Enterococcal IE increased the most (P = .018), while S. aureus IE appeared to increase but mostly in the winter months (P = .018). Between 1996 and 2018, the incidence of VGS IE was relatively stable, with no statistically significant difference in the trends before and after the 2007 AHA IE prevention guidelines. Conclusions Overall, IE incidence, and specifically enterococcal IE, increased over time, while S. aureus IE was seasonally dependent. There was no statistically significant difference in VGS IE incidence in the periods before and after publication of the 2007 AHA IE prevention guidelines.