Obtaining Bioactive Compounds from the Coffee Husk (Coffea arabica L.) Using Different Extraction Methods.
Coffee husks (Coffea arabica L.) are characterized by exhibiting secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, which can be used as raw material for obtaining bioactive compounds of interest in food. The objective of this study is to evaluate different methods for obtaining the raw material and extracting solutions of bioactive compounds from coffee husks. Water bath and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods were used, using water (100%) or ethanol (100%) or a mixture of both (1:1) as extracting solutions and the form of the raw material was in natura and dehydrated. The extracts were evaluated by their antioxidant potential using DPPH radicals, ABTS, and iron reduction (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)), and later total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins were quantified the phenolic majority compounds were identified. It was verified that the mixture of water and ethanol (1:1) showed better extraction capacity of the compounds with antioxidant activity and that both conventional (water bath) or unconventional (ultrasound) methods showed satisfactory results. Finally, a satisfactory amount of bioactive compounds was observed in evaluating the chemical composition (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, condensed tannins, as well as the analysis of the phenolic profile) of these extracts. Corroborating with the results of the antioxidant activities, the best extracting solution was generally the water and ethanol mixture (1:1) using a dehydrated husk and water bath as the best method, presenting higher levels of the bioactive compounds in question, with an emphasis on chlorogenic acid. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of coffee husk as raw material to obtain extracts of bioactive compounds is promising. Last, the conventional method (water bath) and the water and ethanol mixture (1:1) stood out among the methods and extracting solutions used for the dehydrated coffee husk.