Non-genetic acoustic stimulation of single neurons by a tapered fiber optoacoustic emitter

Published on Dec 17, 2020in arXiv: Neurons and Cognition
Linli Shi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(BU: Boston University),
Ying Jiang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(BU: Boston University)
+ 6 AuthorsChen Yang74
Estimated H-index: 74
(BU: Boston University)
Sources
Abstract
As an emerging technology, transcranial focused ultrasound has been demonstrated to successfully evoke motor responses in mice, rabbits, and sensory/motor responses in humans. Yet, the spatial resolution of ultrasound does not allow for high-precision stimulation. Here, we developed a tapered fiber optoacoustic emitter (TFOE) for optoacoustic stimulation of neurons with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 20 microns, enabling selective activation of single neurons or subcellular structures, such as axons and dendrites. A single acoustic pulse of 1 microsecond converted by the TFOE from a single laser pulse of 3 nanoseconds is shown as the shortest acoustic stimuli so far for successful neuron activation. The highly localized ultrasound generated by the TFOE made it possible to integrate the optoacoustic stimulation and highly stable patch clamp recording on single neurons. Direct measurements of electrical response of single neurons to acoustic stimulation, which is difficult for conventional ultrasound stimulation, have been demonstrated for the first time. By coupling TFOE with ex vivo brain slice electrophysiology, we unveil cell-type-specific response of excitatory and inhibitory neurons to acoustic stimulation. These results demonstrate that TFOE is a non-genetic single-cell and sub-cellular modulation technology, which could shed new insights into the mechanism of neurostimulation.
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#1Linli Shi (BU: Boston University)H-Index: 1
#2Ying Jiang (BU: Boston University)H-Index: 4
Last. Chen Yang (BU: Boston University)H-Index: 74
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Abstract Focused ultrasound has attracted great attention in minimally invasive therapeutic and mechanism studies. Frequency below 1 MHz is identified preferable for high-efficiency bio-modulation. However, the poor spatial confinement of several millimeters and large device diameter of ∼25 mm of typical sub-MHz ultrasound technology suffered from the diffraction limit, severely hindering its further applications. To address it, a fiber-based optoacoustic emitter (FOE) is developed, serving as a...
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#2Hyeon Jeong LeeH-Index: 11
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Low-intensity ultrasound is an emerging modality for neuromodulation. Yet, transcranial neuromodulation using low-frequency piezo-based transducers offers poor spatial confinement of excitation volume, often bigger than a few millimeters in diameter. In addition, the bulky size limits their implementation in a wearable setting and prevents integration with other experimental modalities. Here, we report spatially confined optoacoustic neural stimulation through a miniaturized Fiber-Optoacoustic C...
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#1Augix Guohua Xu (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 4
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We have developed a way to map brain-wide networks using focal pulsed infrared neural stimulation in ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patterns of connections revealed are similar to those of connections previously mapped with anatomical tract tracing methods. These include connections between cortex and subcortical locations and long-range cortico-cortical connections. Studies of local cortical connections reveal columnar-sized laminar activation, consistent with feed-forwar...
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The understanding of brain function and the capacity to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders rest on the ability to intervene in neuronal activity in specific brain circuits. Current methods of neuromodulation incur a tradeoff between spatial focus and the level of invasiveness. Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is emerging as a neuromodulation approach that combines noninvasiveness with focus that can be relatively sharp even in regions deep in the brain. This may enable studies of ...
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Optogenetic control of individual neurons with high temporal precision within intact mammalian brain circuitry would enable powerful explorations of how neural circuits operate. Two-photon computer-generated holography enables precise sculpting of light and could in principle enable simultaneous illumination of many neurons in a network, with the requisite temporal precision to simulate accurate neural codes. We designed a high-efficacy soma-targeted opsin, finding that fusing the N-terminal 150...
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: Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a stron...
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